Anal Cancer

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References: Anal cancer detailed guide

AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. Anus. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010:165-170.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2013. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2013.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2012. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2012.

Bleeker MC, Hogewoning CJ, Voorhorst FJ, et al. Condom use promotes regression of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Cancer. 2003 Dec 10;107(5):804-10.

Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, et al. Male circumcision, penile human papilloma virus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 1; 346(15):1105-12.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). FDA licensure of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV2, Cervarix) for use in females and updated HPV vaccination recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 May 28;59(20):626-9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). FDA licensure of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4, Gardasil) for use in males and guidance from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 May 28;59(20):630-2.

Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Johnson LG, et al. Human papillomavirus, smoking and sexual practices in the etiology of anal cancer. Cancer. 2004;101:270-280.

Fox PA, Nathan M, Francis N, Singh N, Weir J, Dixon G, Barton SE, Bower M. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod. AIDS. 2010 Sep 24;24(15):2331-5.

Garland SM, Hernandez-Avila M, Wheeler CM, et al. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent anogenital diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 10;356(19):1928-1943

Goodman MT, Shvetsov YB, McDuffie K, et al. Acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women: the Hawaii HPV Cohort study. J Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 1;197(7):957-66.

Gray RH, Serwadda D, Kong X, et al. Male circumcision decreases acquisition and increases clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-negative men: a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2010 May 15;201(10):1455-62.

Jiang Y, Beddy DJ, Nelson H, Kachnic LA, Ajani JA. Cancer of the anal region In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011:1142-1153.

Kenter G, Welters M, et al. Vaccination against HPV-16 oncoproteins for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. N Engl J Med. 2009 Nov 5;361(19):1838-47.

Kreimer AR, Gonzalez P, Katki HA, et al. Efficacy of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against anal HPV 16/18 infection among young women: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. Lancet Oncology. 2011 Aug 22 (epub ahead of print).

Lu B, Wu Y, Nielson CM, Flores R, et al. Factors associated with acquisition and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of US men: a prospective study. J Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 1;199(3):362-71.

Machalek DA, Poynten M, Jin F,et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection and associated neoplastic lesions in men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2012 May;13(5):487-500. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

Madeleine MM, Newcomer LM. Cancer of the Anus. In: Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner M-J (editors). SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, NIH Pub. No. 07-6215, Bethesda, MD, 2007.

Malik U, Mohiuddin M. Cancer of the anal canal. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Lichter AS, Niederhuber JE, Kastan MB, McKenna WG, eds. Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier; 2008:1557-1568.

National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ). Anal Cancer: Treatment. 7/18/2011. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/anal/healthprofessional on September 7, 2011.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Anal Carcinoma. V.1.2013. Accessed at www.nccn.org on November 6, 2012.

Palefsky JM, Giuliano AR, Goldstone S, et al. HPV vaccine against anal HPV infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 27;365(17):1576-85.

Tobian AA, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, et al. Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1298-309.

Tokudome S, Suzuki S, Ichikawa H, et al. Condom use promotes regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of human papillomavirus: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Cancer. 2004 Oct 20;112(1).

Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, et al. Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 22;354(25):2645-54.

van der Snoek EM, van der Ende ME, den Hollander JC, Schutten M, Neumann HA, van Doornum GJ. Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with lower prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplastic lesions and lower prevalence of human papillomavirus in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2012 Jul;39(7):495-500.


Last Medical Review: 01/02/2013
Last Revised: 01/02/2013