Intravesical therapy for bladder cancer
With intravesical treatment the doctor puts the drug right into the bladder rather than giving it by mouth or putting it into a vein. Drugs given this way mainly affect the cells lining the bladder, with little to no effect on cells elsewhere. For this reason, intravesical therapy is only used for some early stage bladder cancers.
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy (BCG) is an example of immunotherapy that is useful for treating low-stage bladder cancer. BCG is a type of germ that is usually harmless. It is given right into the bladder through a thin, flexible tube called a catheter. The body’s immune system cells are drawn to the bladder and attack the cancer. BCG is usually started a few weeks after a transurethral resection of the tumor and is given once a week for 6 weeks. Sometimes BCG is given long-term.
BCG treatment may cause flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, and tiredness) as well as a burning feeling in the bladder. A high fever (over 101.5° F) that does not get better when you take a pain reliever could mean a life-threatening spread of BCG throughout the body. If this happens, you should call your doctor right away. These infections can be treated with antibiotics.
Interferons are substances normally made by the body to turn on the immune system. They can also be made in the lab and given as medicine in the intravesical treatment of bladder cancer. Other drugs are often given with the interferon to relieve common side effects such as muscle aches, bone pain, headaches, tiredness, nausea, and vomiting.
In this treatment, anti-cancer drugs are put into the bladder through a thin, flexible tube called a catheter. Drugs given this way reach cancer cells in the bladder lining without affecting cells elsewhere, which helps limit side effects.
The main side effects of intravesical chemotherapy are irritation and a burning feeling in the bladder.
Last Medical Review: 12/03/2012
Last Revised: 04/17/2014