- What is cancer?
- Sixteenth to eighteenth centuries
- Nineteenth century
- Cancer causes: Theories throughout history
- Cancer epidemiology
- Modern knowledge and cancer causes
- Cancer screening and early detection
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Surgery
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Hormone therapy
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Radiation
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Chemotherapy
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Immunotherapy
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Targeted therapy
- Cancer survivorship
- The twenty-first century
Evolution of cancer treatments: Immunotherapy
Better understanding of the biology of cancer cells has led to the development of biologic agents that mimic some of the natural signals that the body uses to control cell growth. Clinical trials have shown that this cancer treatment, called biological response modifier (BRM) therapy, biologic therapy, biotherapy, or immunotherapy, is effective for several cancers.
Some of these biologic agents, which occur naturally in the body, can now be made in the lab. Examples are interferons, interleukins, and other cytokines. These agents are given to patients to imitate or influence the natural immune response. They do this either by directly altering the cancer cell growth or by acting indirectly to help healthy cells control the cancer.
One of the most exciting applications of biologic therapy has come from identifying certain tumor targets, called antigens, and aiming an antibody at these targets. This method was first used to find tumors and diagnose cancer and more recently has been used to attack cancer cells. Using technology that was first developed during the 1970s, scientists can mass-produce monoclonal antibodies that are specifically targeted to chemical components of cancer cells. Refinements to these methods, using recombinant DNA technology, have improved the effectiveness and decreased the side effects of these treatments. The first therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, rituximab (Rituxan) and trastuzumab (Herceptin) were approved during the late 1990s to treat lymphoma and breast cancer, respectively. Monoclonal antibodies now are routinely used to treat certain cancers, and many more are being studied.
Scientists are also studying vaccines that boost the body’s immune response to cancer cells. For instance, a 2009 lymphoma study looked at personalized vaccines made from tissue from each patient’s tumor. Encouraging results showed that patients who received the vaccine lived longer disease-free than those who did not.
In 2010, the FDA approved Sipuleucel-T (Provenge), a cancer vaccine for metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (prostate cancer that has spread and is no longer responding to hormone treatment). Unlike a preventive vaccine, which is given to prevent disease, Provenge boosts the body’s immune system’s ability to attack cancer cells in the body. This treatment has been shown to help certain men with prostate cancer live longer, though it does not cure the disease. It represents an important step forward in cancer treatment.
Last Medical Review: 06/08/2012
Last Revised: 06/08/2012