- What is cancer?
- Sixteenth to eighteenth centuries
- Nineteenth century
- Cancer causes: Theories throughout history
- Cancer epidemiology
- Modern knowledge and cancer causes
- Cancer screening and early detection
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Surgery
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Hormone therapy
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Radiation
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Chemotherapy
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Immunotherapy
- Evolution of cancer treatments: Targeted therapy
- Cancer survivorship
- The twenty-first century
Evolution of cancer treatments: Targeted therapy
Until the late 1990s nearly all drugs used in cancer treatment (with the exception of hormone treatments) worked by killing cells that were in the process of replicating their DNA and dividing to form 2 new cells. These chemotherapy drugs also killed some normal cells but had a greater effect on cancer cells.
Targeted therapies work by influencing the processes that control growth, division, and spread of cancer cells, as well as the signals that cause cancer cells to die naturally (the way normal cells do when they are damaged or old). Targeted therapies work in several ways.
Growth signal inhibitors
Growth factors are hormone-like substances that help tell cells when to grow and divide. Their role in fetal growth and repair of injured tissue was first recognized in the 1960s. Later it was realized that abnormal forms of growth factors or abnormally high levels of growth factors contribute to the growth and spread of cancer cells. Researchers have also started to understand how cells recognize and respond to these factors, and how that can lead to signals inside the cells that cause the abnormal features found in cancer cells. Changes in these signal pathways have also been identified as a cause of the abnormal behavior of cancer cells.
During the 1980s, scientists found that many of the growth factors and other substances responsible for recognizing and responding to growth factor are actually products of oncogenes. Among the earliest targeted therapies that block growth signals are trastuzumab (Herceptin), gefitinib (Iressa), imatinib (Gleevec), and cetuximab (Erbitux). Current research has shown great promise for these treatments in some of the more deadly and hard-to-treat forms of cancer, such as non-small cell lung cancer, advanced kidney cancer, and glioblastoma. And second-generation targeted therapies, like dasatinib (Sprycel) and nilotinib (Tasigna), have already been found to produce faster and stronger responses in certain types of cancer and were better tolerated.
Angiogenesis is the creation of new blood vessels. The term comes from 2 Greek words: angio, meaning “blood vessel,” and genesis, meaning “beginning.” Normally, this is a healthy process. New blood vessels, for instance, help the body heal wounds and repair damaged tissues. But in a person with cancer, this same process creates new, very small blood vessels that give a tumor its own blood supply and allow it to grow.
Anti-angiogenesis agents are types of targeted therapy that use drugs or other substances to stop tumors from making the new blood vessels they need to keep growing. This concept was first proposed by Judah Folkman in the early 1970s, but it wasn’t until 2004 that the first angiogenesis inhibitor, bevacizumab (Avastin), was approved. Currently used to treat advanced colorectal, kidney, and lung cancers, bevacizumab is being studied as treatment for many other types of cancer, too. And many new drugs that block angiogenesis have become available since 2004.
Apoptosis is a natural process through which cells with DNA too damaged to repair – such as cancer cells – can be forced to die. Many anti-cancer treatments (including radiation and chemo) cause cell changes that eventually lead to apoptosis. But targeted drugs in this group are different, because they are aimed specifically at the cell substances that control cell survival and death.
Last Medical Review: 06/08/2012
Last Revised: 06/08/2012