- Genes, mutations, and cancer risk
- What is genetic testing?
- Who should have genetic testing?
- What are the benefits of genetic testing?
- What are the drawbacks of genetic testing?
- Who pays for genetic testing?
- What happens during genetic testing?
- What if genetic testing shows an increased cancer risk?
- How else might genetic information be used?
- What’s the future of genetic testing?
- To learn more
American Society of Clinical Oncology. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: Genetic testing for cancer susceptibility. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:2397-2406.
Cameron LD, Sherman KA, Marteau TM, Brown PM. Impact of genetic risk information and type of disease on perceived risk, anticipated affect, and expected consequences of genetic tests. Health Psychol. 2009;28:307-316.
Department of Health and Human Services. “GINA” The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 Information for Researchers and Health Care Professionals. April 6, 2009. Accessed at www.genome.gov/Pages/PolicyEthics/GeneticDiscrimination/GINAInfoDoc.pdf on October 14, 2013.
Federal Trade Commission. At-Home Genetic Tests: A Healthy Dose of Skepticism May Be the Best Prescription. Accessed at http://oba.od.nih.gov/oba/sacghs/reports/DTC_Consumer_Alert_Jul06.pdf on October 14, 2013.
Giarelli E, Jacobs, LA. Issues related to the use of genetic material and information. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2000;27:459-467.
Hudson KL, Holohan MK, Collins FS. Keeping Pace with the Times – The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. New Engl J Med. 2008;358:2661-2663.
Johnson A. National Conference of State Legislatures. Plunging Into the Gene Pool. March 2007. Accessed at www.ncsl.org/default.aspx?tabid=13790 on October 14, 2013.
Johnson KA, Rosenblum-Vos L, Petersen GM, et al. Response to genetic counseling and testing for the APC I1307K mutation. Am J Med Genet. 2000;91:207-211.
Matloff ET. Genetic counseling. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008:651-658.
Mayo Clinic. Personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics, 2012. Accessed at www.mayoclinic.com/health/personalized-medicine/CA00078 on October 14, 2013.
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). GeneTests. Accessed at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/?db=GeneTests on October 19, 2011.
National Conference of State Legislatures. Genetics and Health Insurance State Anti-Discrimination Laws. March 2008. Accessed at www.ncsl.org/issues-research/health/genetic-nondiscrimination-in-health-insurance-laws.aspx on October 14, 2013.
National Institutes of Health. National Human Genome Research Institute. Genetic Testing. Accessed at www.genome.gov/10002335 on October 14, 2013.
Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57:75-89.
The Cancer Genome Atlas. Cancers Selected for Study. Accessed at http://cancergenome.nih.gov/cancersselected on October 14. 2013.
US Department of Energy Office of Science. Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990-2003. Accessed at www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml on October 14, 2013.
US Department of Labor. FAQs on the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Accessed at www.dol.gov/ebsa/faqs/faq-GINA.html on October 14, 2013.
Last Medical Review: 10/18/2013
Last Revised: 03/11/2015