- What is HPV?
- Can a vaccine help prevent HPV?
- Are the HPV vaccines safe?
- Who should be vaccinated against HPV and when?
- What are the benefits of the HPV vaccines?
- How much do the HPV vaccines cost? Are they covered by health insurance plans?
- Do women who have been vaccinated against HPV still need Pap tests?
- Can cervical cancer be prevented without a HPV vaccine?
- To learn more
Anhang R, Goodman A, Goldie, SJ. HPV Communication: Review of existing research and recommendations for patient education. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004;54:245-247.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genital HPV Infection - Fact Sheet. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm on April 4, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Accessed at www.cdc.gov/HPV/index.html on April 4, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians - Fact Sheet. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine-hcp.htm on April 4, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine Safety. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/HPV/Index.html on April 8, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Who Should NOT Get Vaccinated with these Vaccines? Accessed at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/should-not-vacc.htm#hpv on April 4, 2014.
Jemal A, Simard EP, Dorell C, et al. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105(3):175-201.
Hariri S, Unger ER, Sternberg M, et al. Prevalence of genital HPV among females in the United States, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(4):566-573.
Markowitz LE, Dunne EF, Saraiiya M, et al. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2007;56:1-23.
Muñoz N, Manalastas R Jr, Pitisuttithum P, et al. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine in women aged 24-45 years: a randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet. 2009;373(9679):1949-1957.
Petrosky E, Bocchini JA, Hariri S, et al. Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: Updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR. 2015;64:300-304.
Rodríguez AC1, Schiffman M, Herrero R, et al, for the Proyecto Epidemiológico Guanacaste Group. Rapid clearance of human papillomavirus and implications for clinical focus on persistent infections. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(7):513-517.
Saslow D, Castle P, Cox T, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for human papillomavirus vaccine use to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57:7-28.
Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson HW, et al; American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62(3):147-172.
Slade BA, Leidel L, Vellozi C, et al. Postlicensure safety surveillance for quadravalent human papillomavirus recombinant vaccine. JAMA. 2009;302:750-757.
US Food and Drug Administration. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. Approved Products: Cervarix. Accessed at www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm186957.htm on April 8, 2014.
US Food and Drug Administration. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. Approved Products: Gardasil. Accessed at www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm094042.htm on April 8, 2014.
Last Medical Review: 04/09/2014
Last Revised: 02/03/2016