- Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
- What is HPV?
- How do you get genital HPV?
- How common is HPV? Who gets it?
- What are the symptoms of HPV?
- Can HPV be treated?
- Can HPV be prevented?
- What are the risk factors for genital HPV?
- HPV and cancer
- What about other HPV-related diseases?
- Testing for HPV
- If you test positive for HPV, what does it mean?
- Will HPV affect my pregnancy or my baby?
- Why should women over age 30 with normal test results change to co-testing every 5 years and start doing HPV testing? Is that safe?
- HPV vaccines
- Who should be vaccinated and when?
- What are the benefits of the vaccines?
- How much do the HPV vaccines cost? Are they covered by health insurance plans?
- Do you need to be tested for HPV before getting the vaccine?
- Do women and girls who have been vaccinated still need Pap tests?
- Can cervical cancer be prevented without a vaccine?
- Is the American Cancer Society in favor of vaccinating against HPV?
- Do you want more information?
Anhang R, Goodman A, Goldie, SJ. HPV Communication: Review of existing research and recommendations for patient education. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004;54:245-247.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Frequently Asked Questions about HPV Vaccine Safety. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/HPV/hpv_faqs.html on April 11, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genital HPV Infection - Fact Sheet. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm on April 5, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV and Cancer. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/HPV/cancer.html on April 10, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Accessed at www.cdc.gov/HPV/index.html on April 11, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States. February 2013. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf on April 5, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians - Fact Sheet. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine-hcp.htm on April 11, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine Safety. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/HPV/Index.html on April 11, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Who Should NOT Get Vaccinated with these Vaccines? Accessed at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/should-not-vacc.htm#hpv on April 11, 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance – United States, 2011. MMWR. 2012;61(4):1-168.
Gavin L, MacKay AP, Brown K, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 2002-2007. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009;58(6):1-58.
Jemal A, Simard EP, Dorell C, et al. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105(3):175-201.
Kaplan JE, Benson C, Holmes KH, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); National Institutes of Health; HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: Recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009;58(RR-4):71.
Markowitz LE, Dunne EF, Saraiiya M, et al. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2007;56:1-23.
Moscicki AB, Hills NK, Shiboski S, et al. Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:173-178.
Muñoz N, Manalastas R Jr, Pitisuttithum P, et al. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine in women aged 24-45 years: a randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet. 2009;373(9679):1949-1957.
National Cancer Institute. Human Papillomaviruses and Cancer. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/HPV on April 11, 2013.
Nyitray A. Anal cancer and human papillomaviruses in heterosexual men. Curr Oncol. 2008;15:204-205.
Saslow D, Castle P, Cox T, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for human papillomavirus vaccine use to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57:7-28.
Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson HW, et al; American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer [published online ahead of print March 14, 2012]. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62(3). doi:10.3322/caac.21139.
Slade BA, Leidel L, Vellozi C, et al. Postlicensure safety surveillance for quadravalent human papillomavirus recombinant vaccine. JAMA. 2009;302:750-757.
US Food and Drug Administration. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. Approved Products: Cervarix. Accessed at www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm186957.htm on April 11, 2013.
US Food and Drug Administration. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. Approved Products: Gardasil. Accessed at www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm094042.htm on April 11, 2013.
Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, et al. Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2645-2654.
Last Medical Review: 05/02/2013
Last Revised: 05/02/2013