Second Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment

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Breast cancer

Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is often caused by infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). Survivors of cervical cancer have an increased risk for other HPV-related cancers, including cancers of the throat, anus, vulva, and vagina. Smoking is also linked to cervical cancer, and survivors of cervical cancer also have an increased risk of some cancers linked to smoking, such as lung cancer, bladder cancer, and pancreatic cancer.

The risks of bladder and lung cancer are even higher in those women who were treated with radiation. Radiation for cervical cancer also increases the risk of cancers of the colon, rectum, small intestine, uterus, ovary, kidney, soft tissue, and stomach. Radiation is also linked to a higher risk of acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Follow-up care

Survivors of cervical cancer need good gynecologic care to watch for signs of a new cancer in the vulva or vagina, as well as to watch for relapse.

All patients should be encouraged to avoid tobacco smoke.


Last Medical Review: 01/30/2012
Last Revised: 01/30/2012