Child and Teen Tobacco Use
The good news: The number of younger Americans who smoke cigarettes has been going down since the late 1990s.
The bad news: Each day, nearly 3,000 kids under the age of 18 try their first cigarette and another 700 become regular, daily smokers. About one-third of these smokers will die prematurely from a smoking-related disease.
More bad news: As of 2013, nearly 23% of all high school students (grades 9-12) had used some kind of tobacco product in the past month. Now, there are more forms of tobacco to choose from, and many teens are choosing flavored cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookahs, pipes, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes).They often choose more than one: nearly 13% of high school students had used more than one type of tobacco product in the past month.
Whatever they choose, kids are getting hooked in high school. By 12th grade, about half the smokers had tried to quit at least once in the past year.
Children and teens are easy targets for the tobacco industry. They’re often influenced by TV, movies, the Internet, advertising, and by what their friends do and say. They don’t realize what a struggle it can be to quit. And having smoking-related health problems like cancer, emphysema, blindness, or impotence may not seem like real concerns. Kids and teens don’t think much about future health issues.
Facts about kids and tobacco
Almost all smokers start while they’re young.
Studies have found that nearly all first use of tobacco takes place before high school graduation. According to the 2014 Surgeon General’s Report, very few people start smoking after age 25: 98% of adult smokers first smoked by age 26. Nearly 9 of 10 adult smokers had their first smoke by age 18.The younger a person is when they start using tobacco, the more likely they are to use it as an adult. People who start using tobacco regularly when they are younger are more likely to have trouble quitting than people who start later in life. This means if we can keep kids tobacco free until age 18, most will never start using it.
Kids who smoke have smoking-related health problems
Cigarette smoking causes serious health problems in children and teens. Children and teens who smoke regularly can have problems such as:
- Coughing spells
- Shortness of breath, even when not exercising
- Wheezing or gasping
- More frequent headaches
- Increased phlegm (mucus)
- Respiratory illnesses that are worse and happen more often
- Worse cold and flu symptoms
- Reduced physical fitness
- Poor lung growth and function
- Worse overall health
- Addiction to nicotine
As they get older, teens who continue to smoke can develop problems such as:
- Gum disease and tooth loss
- Infertility and impotence
- Chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and bronchitis, which limit exercise and activity
- Hearing loss
- Vision problems, such as macular degeneration, which can lead to blindness
- Blood vessel disease, which can lead to heart attacks or strokes at a young age
Most young smokers are addicted and find it hard to quit
Most young people who smoke regularly are already addicted to nicotine. In fact, they have the same kind of addiction as adult smokers. According to the 2012 Surgeon General’s Report:
“Of every three young smokers, only one will quit, and one of those remaining smokers will die from tobacco-related causes. Most of these young people never considered the long-term health consequences associated with tobacco use when they started smoking; and nicotine, a highly addictive drug, causes many to continue smoking well into adulthood, often with deadly consequences.”
Most teen smokers say that they would like to quit and many have tried to do so without success. Those who try to quit smoking report withdrawal symptoms much like those reported by adults.
Tobacco use is linked to other harmful behaviors
Research has shown that teen tobacco users are more likely to use alcohol and illegal drugs than are non-users. Cigarette smokers are also more likely to get into fights, carry weapons, attempt suicide, suffer from mental health problems such as depression, and engage in high-risk sexual behaviors.
This doesn’t necessarily mean that tobacco use caused these behaviors, but they’re more common in teens who use tobacco. Other factors come into play as well. For example, teens who smoked and reported other harmful behaviors were less likely to have supportive parents who were involved with their daily lives.
Look at the numbers
Tobacco use in middle school students
The most recent numbers on tobacco use among US middle school students come from a 2013 survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (Middle school includes children in grades 6, 7, and 8.)
- Nearly 7% of middle school students reported using some form of tobacco − cigarettes, spit or other oral tobacco, cigars, hookahs, pipes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and flavored cigarettes like bidis or kreteks – at least once in the past 30 days.
- Almost 3% of the students had smoked cigarettes, and more than 3% had smoked cigars. Nearly 2% had smoked pipes, 1.1% had smoked hookahs, and 1.1% had used e-cigarettes. Around 0.4% had used kreteks and the same number had smoked bidis.
- 1.4% used spit or other smokeless tobacco, and 0.4% had used snus (a newer form of snuff).
- Boys and girls were equally likely, at 6.5%, to use some form of tobacco.
Tobacco use in high school students
The most recent tobacco numbers for high school students come from the 2013 CDC Youth Tobacco Survey and other CDC surveys. Keep in mind that these studies are done with students who are still in school. Teens who drop out have higher rates of smoking and tobacco use, and are not included in these numbers.
- Nationwide, nearly 23% of high school students reported using some type of tobacco (cigarette, cigar, pipe, bidi, kretek, hookah, e-cigarette, or some form of smokeless tobacco) on at least 1 of the 30 days before the survey. By gender, more than 18% of high school girls and 27% of high school boys used tobacco.
- On average, about 1 out of 8 students (12.7%) smoked cigarettes. Girls (11%) were less likely to smoke cigarettes than boys (14%). White students (14%) were more likely to smoke cigarettes than black (9%), or Hispanic/Latino (13%) students.
- About 12% of high school students had smoked cigars in the last 30 days. Male students (15%) were more likely to smoke cigars than female students (8%).
- About 6% of high school students reported using spit or other smokeless tobacco at least once in the 30 days before the survey. About 10% of the boys and about 2% of the girls surveyed had used smokeless tobacco.
- About half of the students who reported that they still smoked had tried to quit at least once during the year before.
- Other tobacco use among high school students included pipes (over 4%), bidis (about 1%), and kreteks (about 1%).
Last Medical Review: 12/16/2014
Last Revised: 03/06/2015