Alguacil J, Silverman DT. Smokeless and other noncigarette tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(1):55-58.
American Lung Association, Children and Teens. Accessed at www.lungusa.org/stop-smoking/about-smoking/facts-figures/children-teens-and-tobacco.html on December 16, 2014.
Arday DR, Giovino GA, Schulman J, et al. Cigarette smoking and self-reported health problems among U.S. high school seniors, 1982-1989. Am J Health Promot. 1995;10(2):111-116.
British Medical Association. Smoking and Reproductive Life: The Impact of Smoking on Sexual, Reproductive and Child Health. 2004. Accessed at www.bma.org.uk on November 14, 2013. Content no longer available at this site.
Butt AL, Anderson HA, Gates DJ. Parental influence and effects of pro-smoking media messages on adolescents in Oklahoma. J Okla State Med Assoc. 2009;102:147-151.
Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. The Rise of Cigars and Cigar-Smoking Harms. March 7, 2013. Accessed at www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0333.pdf on December 16, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Calling It Quits (brochure). Accessed at www.cdc.gov/tobacco/tobacco_control_programs/campaigns_events/got_a_minute/got_A_Minute_brochure/callingitquits/index.htm on November 10, 2010. Content no longer available.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Consumption of Cigarettes and Combustible Tobacco – United States, 2000-2011. MMWR. 2012;61(30);565-569. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6130a1.htm on December 16, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Current cigarette smoking among adults – United States, 2011. MMWR. 2012;61(44):889-894.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Notes from the Field: Electronic Cigarette Use Among Middle and High School Students – United States, 2011-2012. MMWR. 2013;62(35); 729-730. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6235a6.htm?s_cid=mm6235a6_w on December 16, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students – United States, 2013. MMWR. 2014;63(45);1021-1026. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6345a2.htm on December 8, 2014..
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tobacco Use, Access, and Exposure to Tobacco in Media Among Middle and High School Students – United States, 2004. MMWR. 2005;54(12); 297-301. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5412a1.htm on December 16, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking & Tobacco Use. Bidis and Kreteks. July 2013. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/tobacco_industry/bidis_kreteks/ on December 16, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking & Tobacco Use. Hookahs. June 14, 2013. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/tobacco_industry/hookahs/index.htm on December 16, 2014.
Cogliano V, Straif K, Baan R, et al. Smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related nitrosamines. Lancet Oncol. 2004;5:708.
Critchley JA, Unal B. Is smokeless tobacco a risk factor for coronary heart disease? A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2004;1:101-112.
Gilman SE, Rende R, Boergers J, et al. Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e274-281.
Gold DR, Wang X, Wypij D, et al. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Lung Function in Adolescent Boys and Girls. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:931-937.
Govtrack.us. 111th Congress 2009-2010. H.R.1256: Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Accessed at https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/111/hr1256/text on December 16, 2014.
Holmen TL, Barrett-Connor E, Holmen J, Bjermer L. Health problems in teenage daily smokers versus nonsmokers, Norway, 1995-1997: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151(2):148-55.
Knishkowy B, Amitai Y. Water-Pipe (Narghile) Smoking: An Emerging Health Risk Behavior. Pediatrics. 2005;116:e113-e119.
Lee YO, Mukherjea A, Grana R. Hookah steam stones: smoking vapour expands from electronic cigarettes to waterpipes. Tob Control. 2013;22(2):136-137.
Theron A, Schultz C, Ker JA, Falzone N. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels in water-pipe and cigarette smokers. S Afr Med J. 2010;100(2):122-124.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2012. Accessed at www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/full-report.pdf on December 16, 2014.
US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking --- 50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2014. Accessed at www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/ on December 8, 2014.
US Department of Health and Human Service,. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. 2014. Accessed at http://media.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2013SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindings/NSDUHresults2013.htm on December 8, 2014.
Waldie KE, McGee R, Reeder AI, Poulton R. Associations between frequent headaches, persistent smoking, and attempts to quit. Headache. 2008;48:545-552.
Last Medical Review: 12/16/2014
Last Revised: 03/06/2015