Cigarette Smoking

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References

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga. 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs --- United States, 1995–1999. MMWR. 2002;51(14);300-303. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5114a2.htm on February 20, 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette-smoking attributable morbidity --- United States, 2000. MMWR. 2003;52(35);842-844. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5235a4.htm on February 20, 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Current cigarette smoking among adults – United States, 2005–2012. MMWR. 2014;63(02):29-34. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6302a2.htm on February 11, 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/index.htm on February 20, 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Notes from the Field: Electronic Cigarette Use Among Middle and High School Students — United States, 2011–2012. MMWR. 2013 / 62(35);729-730. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6235a6.htm on February 12, 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses, United States, 2000–2004. MMWR. 2008;57(45):1226-1228. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5745a3.htm on February 20, 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students – United States, 2011 and 2012. MMWR. 2013;62(45):893-897. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6245a2.htm?s_cid=mm6245a2_e on February 20, 2014.

De Stefani E, Oreggia F, Rivero S, et al. Hand-rolled cigarette smoking and risk of cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx. Cancer. 1992;70:679-682.

Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Report for 2011. May 2013. Accessed at www.ftc.gov/reports/federal-trade-commission-cigarette-report-2011 on February 26, 2014.

Gades NM, Nehra A, Jacobson DJ, et al. Association between smoking and erectile dysfunction: a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;161:346-351.

Gandhi KK, Foulds J, Steinberg MB, et al. Lower quit rates among African American and Latino menthol cigarette smokers at a tobacco treatment clinic. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63(3):360-367.

Hackshaw A, Rodeck C, Boniface S. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls. Hum Reprod Update. 2011;17(5):589-604.

National Cancer Institute (NCI). Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting, January 2011. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/cessation on February 20, 2014.

National Institute for Drug Abuse. NIDA Research Reports Series: Tobacco Addiction. Rev. July 2012. Accessed at www.nida.nih.gov/PDF/RRTobacco.pdf on February 20, 2014.

Okuyemi KS, Faseru B, Sanderson Cox L, et al. Relationship between menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation among African American light smokers. Addiction. 2007;102(12):1979-1986.

Pletcher MJ, Hulley BJ, Houston T, et al. Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1915-1922.

US Department of Health & Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking---50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2014. Accessed at www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/ on January 27, 2014.

US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2004. Accessed at www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/smokingconsequences/ on February 20, 2014.

US Food and Drug Administration. Electronic Cigarettes. Accessed at www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm172906.htm on February 12, 2014.

US Food and Drug Administration. Menthol Report: Overview. Accessed at www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/TobaccoProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/ucm247605.htm on February 20, 2014..

US Food and Drug Administration. Timeline: Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Accessed at www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ucm237052.htm on February 20, 2014.

US Food and Drug Administration. Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. Menthol Cigarettes and Public Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations. March 23, 2011. Accessed at www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/TobaccoProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/UCM269697.pdf on February 20, 2014..

US Public Law 111–31—June 22, 2009. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Accessed at www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-111publ31/pdf/PLAW-111publ31.pdf on February 20, 2014..

Vardavas CI, Anagnostopoulos N, Kougias M, et al. Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide. Chest. 2012;141(6):1400-1406.

Willigendael EM, Teijink JA, Bartelink ML, et al. Smoking and the patency of lower extremity bypass grafts: a meta-analysis. J Vasc Surg. 2005;42:67-74.


Last Medical Review: 02/20/2014
Last Revised: 02/20/2014