Albandar JM, Streckfus CF, Adesanya MR, Winn DM. Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for periodontal disease and tooth loss. J Periodontol. 2000;71:1874-1881.
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga. 2014.
American Legacy Foundation. Cigars, cigarillos & little cigars fact sheet. 2009. Accessed at www.legacyforhealth.org/3362.aspx on October 3, 2012. Content no longer available.
Baker F, Ainsworth SR, Dye JT, et al. Health risks associated with cigar smoking. JAMA. 2000;284:735-740.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Consumption of Cigarettes and Combustible Tobacco—United States, 2000 - 2011. MMWR. 2012;61(30):565-569. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6130a1.htm?s_cid=mm6130a1_w on February 17, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students – United States, 2011 and 2012. MMWR. 2013;62(45); 893-897. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6245a2.htm?s_cid=mm6245a2_e on February 17, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Current cigarette smoking among adults – United States, 2005–2012. MMWR. 2014;63(02):29-34.
Delnevo CD, Foulds J, Hrywna M. Trading tobacco: are youths choosing cigars over cigarettes? Am J Public Health. 2005;95:2123.
Delnevo CD, Hrywna M. “A whole ‘nother smoke” or a cigarette in disguise: How RJ Reynolds reframed the image of little cigars. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1368-1375.
Federal Communications Commission. Complaints about broadcast advertising – FCC consumer Facts: Are There Any Laws That Limit the Material That Stations Can Broadcast? Accessed at www.fcc.gov/guides/broadcast-advertising-complaints on February 17, 2014.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC). FTC Announces Settlements Requiring Disclosure of Cigar Health Risks. 2000. Accessed at www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2000/06/ftc-announces-settlements-requiring-disclosure-cigar-health-risks on February 17, 2014.
Federation of Tax Administrators. Tobacco Tax Links, updated January 2014. Accessed at www.taxadmin.org/fta/tobacco/link.html on February 12, 2014.
Feldman H, Johannes C, Derby C, et al. Erectile dysfunction and coronary risk factors: prospective results from the Massachusetts male aging study. Prev Med. 2000;30:328-338.
Food and Drug Administration. Frequently Asked Questions on the Passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA). 2010. Accessed at www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/NewsEvents/ucm173174.htm on February 17, 2014.
Health Canada. A Proposal to Regulate Little Cigars under the Tobacco (Access) Regulations: Annex 2 - Criteria (Characteristics and Properties) to Distinguish Little Cigars From Cigars. Accessed at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/consult/_2008/cigar/annex2-draft-ebauche-eng.php on October 9, 2012. Content no longer available.
Iribarren C, Tekawa I, Sidney S, Friedman G. Effect of cigar smoking on the risk of cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer in men. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1773-1780.
Jolly DH. Exploring the use of little cigars by students at a historically black university. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A82.
Malone R, Bero L. Cigars, youth, and the Internet link. Am J Pub Health. 2000;90:790-792.
National Cancer Institute (NCI). Cigars: Health Effects and Trends. Monograph #9. 1998. Accessed at http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/9 on February 17, 2014.
National Lung Screening Trial Research Team, Aberle DR, Adams AM, et al. Reduced Lung-Cancer Mortality with Low-Dose Computed Tomographic Screening. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(5):395-409.
Rodriguez J, Jiang R, Johnson WC, et al. The association of pipe and cigar use with cotinine levels, lung function, and airflow obstruction: a cross-sectional study. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(4):201-210.
Shapiro J, Jacobs E, Thun M. Cigar smoking and the risk of death from tobacco-related cancers. J Nat Cancer Inst. 2000;92:333-337.
Streppel MT, Boshuizen HC, Ocké MC, et al. Mortality and life expectancy in relation to long-term cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking: the Zutphen Study. Tob Control. 2007;16(2):107-113.
Trapl ES, Terchek JJ, Danosky L, et al. Complexity of measuring “cigar use” in adolescents: results from a split sample experiment. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011;13(4):291-295.
Tobacco Control Legal Consortium. State Taxation of Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products. Accessed at http://publichealthlawcenter.org/sites/default/files/resources/tclc-guide-state-tax-OTP-2012.pdf on April 2, 2014.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings. Accessed at www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/NationalFindings/NSDUHresults2012.htm#ch4.3 on February 10, 2014.
US Department of Health & Human Services. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General. 1990. Accessed at http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/C/T/ on February 18, 2014.
US Department of Health & Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2004. Accessed at www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/smokingconsequences/ on February 18, 2014.
US Department of Health & Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction: A Report of the Surgeon General. 1988. Accessed at http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/Z/D/ on February 18, 2014.
US Department of Health & Human Services. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. 1989. Accessed at http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/B/X/S/ on February 18, 2014.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2000. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2000/index.htm on February 18, 2014.
US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2006. Accessed at www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/ on February 18, 2014.
US Department of the Treasury, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Statistical Report – Tobacco, Reporting Period: December 2009. Accessed at www.ttb.gov/statistics/2009/200912tobacco.pdf on February 18, 2014.
US Department of the Treasury, Office of the Inspector General. Audit of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax & Trade Bureau’s Fiscal Years 2011 and 2010 Financial Statements. December 21, 2011. Accessed at www.treasury.gov/about/organizational-structure/ig/Agency%20Documents/OIG12034.pdf on February 18, 2014.
US Government Printing Office. Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act of 2009. Accessed at www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-111s1147enr/pdf/BILLS-111s1147enr.pdf on February 18, 2014.
Last Medical Review: 02/19/2014
Last Revised: 02/19/2014