test result implying a condition does not exist when in fact it does.
test result implying a condition exists when in fact it does not.
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also called FAP. An inherited condition that puts a person at risk for getting colorectal cancer when they are young. People with this syndrome develop many polyps in the colon and rectum as well as tumors in other parts of the body. Usually one or more of these polyps becomes cancer if it is not removed. FAP is caused by changes in the APC gene. See also APC gene, colon, gastrointestinal tract, polyp, rectum, tumor.
a sheet or thin band of fibrous tissue that covers muscles and some organs of the body.
the death of fat cells, usually following injury. Fat necrosis is not cancer, but it can cause lumps and pulling of the tissues. When this happens in the breast, it can be confused with breast cancer.
a common symptom during cancer treatment, a bone-weary tiredness that doesn’t get better with rest. For some people, this can last for a long time after treatment.
also called FIT. A test to look for hidden blood in the stool, which could be a sign of cancer. The test is not affected by vitamins or foods, though it still requires 2 or 3 stool samples to give accurate results. See also colorectal cancer screening, false positive, fecal occult blood test.
a test for hidden blood in the feces (stool). This may be a sign of cancer, or it could be blood from other sources. See also colorectal cancer screening, fecal immunochemical test.
solid waste matter; stool.
the thigh bone, which is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body. It extends from the hip (pelvis) to the knee.
includes a wide variety of plant carbohydrates that are not digested by humans. Fibers are grouped as soluble (like oat bran) and insoluble (like wheat bran). Beans, vegetables, whole grains, and fruits are good sources of fiber. Links between fiber intake alone and risk of cancer are not proven, but eating these foods is still recommended because they contain other substances that may help prevent cancer. They also have other health benefits.
a breast tumor made of fibrous and glandular tissue that is not cancer. On a clinical breast exam or breast self-exam, it usually feels like a firm, round, smooth lump. These usually occur in young women. See also glandular tissue.
a term that describes certain changes in the breast that are not cancer. Symptoms of this condition are breast swelling or pain. The doctor or nurse will look for nodules, lumpiness, or a discharge from the nipples. Because these symptoms or other signs can sometimes look like breast cancer, a mammogram or a biopsy of breast tissue may be needed to show that there is no cancer. See also biopsy, mammogram.
formation of scar-like (fibrous) tissue. This can happen anywhere in the body.
a bone in the calf; the thinner, outside bone of the 2 bones in lower leg that go from the knee to the ankle. See also tibia.
also called FNA or FNAB. A procedure in which a thin needle is used to draw up (aspirate) samples to look at under a microscope. See also aspiration, biopsy.
a genetically related (blood-related) parent, sibling (brother or sister), or child.
see fluorescent in situ hybridization.
an abnormal passage, opening, or connection between 2 internal organs or from an internal organ to the outside of the body.
five-year relative survival rates compare the number of people who are still alive 5 years after their cancer was found to the survival of others the same age who don’t have cancer. This helps correct for other causes of death and is a better way to see the impact that cancer can have on survival. Still, these survival rates are not helpful in predicting any one person’s outcome. Five-year survival rates are based on the most recent information available, but they may include information from patients treated several years earlier. These numbers do not take into account advances in treatment that have often occurred. See also five-year survival rate.
the percentage of people with a given cancer who are alive 5 years or longer after diagnosis. Five-year survival rates are based on the most recent information available, but they may include information from patients treated several years earlier. These numbers do not take into account advances in treatment that have often occurred. They only paint a very general picture of how people in the past have done with the same type of cancer. Note that the 5-year survival rate counts survivors only, regardless of the cause of death (so some non-survivors will have died from causes other than cancer). These survival rates are not helpful in predicting any one person’s outcome. See also five-year relative survival rate.
a test of tumor tissue to see how fast the tumor cells are growing and if the tumor cells contain a normal or abnormal amount of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This test is used to help predict how fast a cancer is likely to grow and spread. See also deoxyribonucleic acid, ploidy, s-phase fraction.
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a test that can help look at chromosomes. It uses special fluorescent dyes that only attach to certain parts of chromosomes and can find specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. It can be used to diagnose, to evaluate prognosis (disease outlook), or to look at the remission of a disease. See also chromosome, cytogenetics, deoxyribonucleic acid, remission.
a point at which rays of light or radiation beams come together. Also used to describe a region of disease in the body. The plural can be focuses or foci (fo-sy).
a sac or pouch-like structure. There are many types of follicles of all sizes in the body; for example, in the scalp, around the teeth, in lymph cells, in the thyroid, and in the ovaries. See also follicular.
relating to a follicle or follicles. In medicine, may refer to a type of cell in the thyroid, or to a type of cancer that starts in these follicular cells. It can also refer to a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (see also follicle, non-Hodgkin lymphoma).
a partial or complete break, usually in bone.
see percent-free PSA.
a very thin slice of body tissue that has been quick-frozen for the pathologist to look at under a microscope while the patient is still in surgery. This method is sometimes used because it gives a quick diagnosis, and can tell a surgeon whether or not to continue with the procedure. The diagnosis is confirmed in a few days by a more detailed study called a permanent section. See also biopsy, permanent section, pathologist.