a clogged milk duct; a cyst filled with milk. It may occur in the breast during breast-feeding. See also cyst, duct.
like familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Gardner syndrome is an inherited condition in which polyps develop at a young age and often lead to cancer. It can also cause benign (not cancerous) tumors of the skin, soft connective tissue, and bones. See also APC gene, familial adenomatous polyposis, polyp.
of or referring to the stomach.
a doctor who specializes in diseases of the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract, such as the esophagus (swallowing tube), stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, as well as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. See also esophagus, large intestine, liver, pancreas, small intestine, stomach.
also called GISTs. Tumors that grow from special cells on the intestinal wall known as the interstitial cells of Cajal. These tumors may or may not be cancer. GIST cancers are very different from other more common types of GI tract cancers in treatment and outlook. See also gastrointestinal tract.
also called the GI tract or the digestive tract. It is made up of those organs and structures that process and prepare food to be used for energy; for example, the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
a piece of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that has information on inherited traits such as hair color, eye color, and height, as well as susceptibility to certain diseases. See also deoxyribonucleic acid, mutation.
a type of treatment being studied in which defective genes would be replaced with normal ones. The new genes could be delivered into the cells by viruses or proteins. See also gene.
the process of counseling people who might have a gene that makes them more likely to develop cancer. The purpose of counseling is to explore what the genetic test results might mean, help them decide whether they wish to be tested, and support them before and after the test. See also gene, genetic counselor, genetic testing.
a specially trained health professional who helps people as they consider genetic testing, as they adjust to the test results, and as they consider whatever screening and preventive measures are best for them. They can also help a person understand what their results may mean for other family members, See also genetic counseling, genetic testing.
tests that can be done to see if a person has certain gene changes known to increase cancer risk. Such testing is not recommended for everyone, but for people with certain types of family history. Genetic counseling should be part of the genetic testing process. See also genetic counseling.
the total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and sometimes ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a single cell, representing all of the genetic information of the organism. The term genome can also refer to certain types of genetic material, such as that in the cell’s nucleus (nuclear genome) or mitochondria (mitochondrial genome). See also deoxyribonucleic acid, gene, ribonucleic acid.
the reproductive cells of the body, that is, ova (eggs) or sperm. See also ova, sperm.
see gastrointestinal tract.
a cell or group of cells that make and release substances to be used by the body or sent outside of it. The sweat glands are some examples of organs that make and release substances. See also duct, endocrine glands.
the cells in a gland that make substances. For example, glandular cells in the prostate make the milky fluid which becomes part of the semen.
tissue that makes and secretes a substance. For instance, the lobules of the breast are glandular tissue because they make breast milk. See also lobules.
the head of the penis.
a number describing how abnormal prostate cancer cells look based on the Gleason system. A pathologist assigns a grade number from 1 through 5 based on how much the cancer cells under the microscope look like normal prostate cells. Those that look a lot like normal cells are graded 1, while those that look the least like normal cells are graded 5. See also Gleason score, grade, pathologist, prostate.
the sum of the 2 Gleason grades used classify prostate cancer based on how the cells look under the microscope. Because prostate cancers often have areas with different grades, a grade is assigned to the 2 areas that make up most of the cancer. These 2 grades are added to give a Gleason score between 2 and 10. This is used along with other information to stage the cancer. The higher the Gleason score, the faster the cancer is likely to grow and the more likely it is to spread beyond the prostate. See also Gleason grade, prostate, staging.
the grade of a cancer tells how abnormal its cells look under the microscope. There are different grading systems for different types of cancers. Each grading system divides cancer into those that look the most normal, the least normal, and those in between. Grading is done by a pathologist who looks at sample tissue from the biopsy. Cancers with more abnormal-looking cells tend to grow and spread more quickly and have a worse prognosis (outlook). See also biopsy, pathologist, staging.
the condition that results when the immune cells of a transplant (usually a bone marrow or other type of stem cell transplant) from a donor attack the tissues of the person receiving the transplant. See also allogeneic stem cell transplant, bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, stem cells, umbilical cord blood transplant.
a unit for measuring radiation transfer. See also radiation dose.
naturally occurring proteins that make cells grow and divide. Too much growth factor production by some cancer cells helps them grow quickly. New treatments to block these growth factors are being tested in clinical trials. Other growth factors are sometimes used to help normal cells recover from side effects of chemotherapy.
substance used to test stool to see if it contains blood. See also fecal occult blood test.
a doctor who specializes in cancers of the female reproductive (sex) organs. See also cancer care team.
a doctor who specializes in women’s health.
male breast enlargement, sometimes with breast tenderness; a possible side effect of some hormone treatments. See also hormone therapy.