What is cancer?
The body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal body cells grow, divide to make new cells, and die in an orderly way. During the early years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. Once the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries.
Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because of out-of-control growth of abnormal cells.
Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. Instead of dying, cancer cells keep growing and forming new, abnormal cells. Cancer cells can also invade (grow into) other tissues, something that normal cells cannot do. Growing out of control and invading other tissues are what makes a cell a cancer cell.
Cells become cancer cells because of damage to their DNA. DNA is in every cell and directs all its actions. In a normal cell, damaged DNA must be repaired or the cell dies. In cancer cells, the damaged DNA is not repaired, but the cell doesn’t die like it should. Instead, this cell goes on making new cells that the body doesn’t need. These new cells will all have the same damaged DNA as the first cell does.
People can inherit damaged (mutated) DNA from their parents, but most DNA damage is caused by mistakes that happen while a normal cell is reproducing or by something in the environment. In adults the cause of the DNA damage may be something obvious, like cigarette smoking. But often no clear cause is found.
In most cases the cancer cells form a tumor. Some cancers, like leukemia, rarely form tumors. Instead, these cancer cells involve the blood and blood-forming organs and circulate through other tissues where they grow.
Cancer cells often travel to other parts of the body, where they begin to grow and form new tumors that replace normal tissue. This process is called metastasis. It happens when the cancer cells get into the bloodstream or lymph vessels of our body.
No matter where a cancer may spread, it’s named (and treated) based on the place where it started. For example, breast cancer that has spread to the bones is still breast cancer, not bone cancer.
Different types of cancer can behave very differently. They grow at different rates and respond to different treatments. That’s why people need treatment that is aimed at their particular kind of cancer.
Last Medical Review: 02/13/2014
Last Revised: 02/13/2014