References: Cancer of unknown primary detailed guide
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2016. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2016.
Glover KY, Varadhachary GR, Lenzi R, et al. Unknown primary cancer. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Lichter AS, Niederhuber JE. Kastan MB, McKenna WG. eds. Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa; Elsevier; 2008: 2057-2074.
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Hainsworth JD, Spigel DR, Farley C, et al. Phase II trial of bevacizumab and erlotinib in carcinomas of unknown primary site: the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:1747-1752.
Jerusalem G, Rorive A, Ancion G, et al. Diagnostic and therapeutic management of carcinoma of unknown primary: radio-imaging investigations. Ann Oncol. 2006;17 Suppl 10:x168-176.
Mintzer DM, Warhol M, Martin AM, et al. Cancer of unknown primary: changing approaches. A multidisciplinary case presentation from the Joan Karnell Cancer Center of Pennsylvania Hospital. Oncologist. 2004;9:330-338.
National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ). Carcinoma of Unknown Primary: Treatment. 4/11/2014. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/unknownprimary/HealthProfessional on June 25, 2014.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Occult primary. Version 3.2014. Accessed at www.nccn.org on June 25, 2014.
Pavlidis N, Fizazi K. Cancer of unknown primary (CUP). Crit Rev Onc/Hem. 2005;54:243-250.
Seve P, Sawyer M, Hanson J, et al. The influence of comorbidities, age, and performance status on the prognosis and treatment of patients with metastatic carcinomas of unknown primary site. Cancer. 2006;106:2058-2066.
Varadachary GR, Abbruzzese JL, Lenzi R. Diagnostic strategies for unknown primary cancer. Cancer. 2004;100:1776-1785.
Last Medical Review: 07/02/2014
Last Revised: 01/27/2016