Adam E, Kaufman RH, Adler-Storthz K, et al. A prospective study of association of herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus infection with cervical neoplasia in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. Int J Cancer. 1985;35(1):19-26.
American Joint Committee on Cancer. Cervix Uteri. In: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010: 395-402.
Anderson TA, Schick V, Herbenick D, Dodge B, Fortenberry JD. A study of human papillomavirus on vaginally inserted sex toys, before and after cleaning, among women who have sex with women and men. Sex Transm Infect. 2014 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]
Arbyn M, Kyrgiou M, Simoens C, et al. Perinatal mortality and other severe adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008;337:a1284.
Ault KA, Future II study group. Effect of prophylactic human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine on risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, grade 3, and adenocarcinoma in situ: a combined analysis of four randomised clinical trials. Lancet. 2007;369(9576):1861-1868.
Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, et al. Male circumcision, penile human papilloma virus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346(15):1105-1112.
Castellsagué X, Díaz M, Vaccarella S, et al. Intrauterine device use, cervical infection with human papillomavirus, and risk of cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of 26 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(11):1023-1031.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). FDA licensure of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV2, Cervarix) for use in females and updated HPV vaccination recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2010;59(20):626-629. Erratum in: MMWR. 2010;59(36):1184.
Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Gilbert ES, et al. Second cancers among 104760 survivors of cervical cancer: evaluation of long-term risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:1634-1643.
Chaturvedi AK, Kleinerman RA, Hildesheim A, et al. Second cancers after squamous cell carcinoma andadenocarcinoma of the cervix. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(6):967-73.
Cuzick J, Myers O, Hunt WC, Robertson M, Joste NE, Castle PE, Benard VB, Wheeler CM; New Mexico HPV Pap Registry Steering Committee. A population-based evaluation of cervical screening in the United States: 2008-2011. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 May;23(5):765-73. Epub 2013 Dec 3.
Del Priore G, Gudipudi DK, Montemarano N, et al. Oral diindolylmethane (DIM): pilot evaluation of a nonsurgical treatment for cervical dysplasia. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;116(3):464-467. Epub 2009 Nov 24.
Eifel PJ, Berek JS, Markman, M. Cancer of the cervix, vagina, and vulva. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011: 1311-1344.
Ghosh C, Baker JA, Moysich KB, et al. Dietary intakes of selected nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(3):331-341.
Gray RH, Serwadda D, Kong X, et al. Male circumcision decreases acquisition and increases clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-negative men: a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(10):1455-1462.
Grimm C, Polterauer S, Natter C, et al. Treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with topical imiquimod: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120(1):152-159.
Hatch EE, Herbst AL, Hoover RN, et al. Incidence of squamous neoplasia of the cervix and vagina in women exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12(9):837-845.
Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, et al. Transmission of human papillomavirus in heterosexual couples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(6):888-894.
Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations), National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2009_pops09/, based on November 2011 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2012.
International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer. Cervical cancer and reproductive factors: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 16,563 women with cervical carcinoma and 33,542 women without cervical carcinoma from 25 epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:1108-1124.
International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer. Appleby P, Beral V, Berrington de González A, et al. Cervical cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data for 16,573 women with cervical cancer and 35,509 women without cervical cancer from 24 epidemiological studies. Lancet. 2007;370(9599):1609-1621.
Jhingran A, Eifel PJ, Wharton JT, et al. Neoplasms of the cervix. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E. Cancer Medicine 6. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker; 2003. 1779-1808.
Jhingran A, Russel AH, Seiden MV, et al. Cancers of the cervix, vagina and vulva. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Lichter AS, et al. Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa; Elsevier; 2008: 1745-1765.
Kataja V, Syrjänen S, Yliskoski M, et al. Risk factors associated with cervical human papillomavirus infections: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;138(9):735-745.
Kleinerman RA, Kosary C, Hildesheim A. New Malignancies Following Cancer of the Cervix Uteri, Vagina, and Vulva. In: Curtis RE, Freedman DM, Ron E, Ries LAG, Hacker DG, Edwards BK, Tucker MA, Fraumeni JF Jr. (eds). New Malignancies Among Cancer Survivors: SEER Cancer Registries, 1973-2000. National Cancer Institute. NIH Publ. No. 05-5302. Bethesda, MD, 2006. Accessed on 4/18/2014 at http://seer.cancer.gov/archive/publications/mpmono/MPMonograph_complete.pdf.
Kosary CL. Cancer of the uterine cervix. In: Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner M-J (editors). SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, NIH Pub. No. 07-6215, Bethesda, MD, 2007.
Kreimer AR, González P, Katki HA, et al. Efficacy of a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against anal HPV 16/18 infection among young women: a nested analysis within the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12(9):862-870.
Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, Rock CL, Demark-Wahnefried W, Bandera EV, Gapstur S, Patel AV, Andrews K, Gansler T; American Cancer Society 2010 Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012 Jan-Feb;62(1):30-67.
Kyrgiou M, Koliopoulos G, Martin-Hirsch P, et al. Obstetric outcomes after conservative treatment for intraepithelial or early invasive cervical lesions: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2006;367(9509):489-498.
Lacey JV Jr, Swanson CA, Brinton LA, et al. Obesity as a potential risk factor for adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Cancer. 2003;98(4):814-821.
Lécuru F, Mathevet P, Querleu D, et al. Bilateral negative sentinel nodes accurately predict absence of lymph node metastasis in early cervical cancer: results of the SENTICOL study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(13):1686-1691.
Lu B, Wu Y, Nielson CM, et al. Factors associated with acquisition and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of US men: a prospective study. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(3):362-371.
Lutgens L, van der Zee J, Pijls-Johannesma M, et al. Combined use of hyperthermia and radiation therapy for treating locally advanced cervix carcinoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;3:CD006377
Marrazzo JM, Koutsky LA, Stine KL, et al. Genital human papillomavirus infection in women who have sex with women. J Infect Dis. 1998;178(6):1604-1609. PubMed PMID: 9815211.
Massad LS, Einstein MH, Huh WK, et al. 2012 Updated Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Tests and Cancer Precursors. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease. 2013;17(5):S1-S27.
Monk BJ, Sill MW, Burger RA, et al. Phase II trial of bevacizumab in the treatment of persistent or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(7):1069-1074. Epub 2009 Jan 12.
Monk BJ, Mas Lopez L, Zarba JJ, et al. Phase II, open-label study of pazopanib or lapatinib monotherapy compared with pazopanib plus lapatinib combination therapy in patients with advanced and recurrent cervical cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(22):3562-3569. Epub 2010 Jul 6.
National Institutes of Health. Medline Plus. Female Condoms. 3/11/2014. Accessed at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/004002.htm on July 16, 2014.
NCCN Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Cervical Cancer Version 7.2014. Accessed at www.nccn.org on July 14, 2014.
Nielson CM, Harris RB, Flores R, et al. Multiple-type human papillomavirus infection in male anogenital sites: prevalence and associated factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(4):1077-1083. Epub 2009 Mar 24.
Paavonen J, Naud P, Salmerón J, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet. 2009;374(9686):301-314.
PDQ database. Cervical cancer. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 3/14/2014. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/cervical/healthprofessional on July 14, 2014.
Plummer M, Herrero R, Franceschi S, et al; IARC Multi-centre Cervical Cancer Study Group. Smoking and cervical cancer: pooled analysis of the IARC multi-centric case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14(9):805-814.
Ronco G, Cuzick J, Pierotti P, et al. Accuracy of liquid based versus conventional cytology: overall results of new technologies for cervical cancer screening: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2007;335(7609):28. Epub 2007 May 21.
Rose PG, Ali S, Watkins E, et al. Long-term follow-up of a randomized trial comparing concurrent single agent cisplatin, cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, or hydroxyurea during pelvic irradiation for locally advanced cervical cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(19):2804-2810.
Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson H, et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62(3):147-172. Epub 2012 Mar 14.
Saslow D, Castle PE, Cox JT, et al. American Cancer Society guideline for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57:7-28.
Schiffman M, Castle PE, Jeronimo J, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Lancet. 2007;370(9590):890-907.
Schover LR. Sexuality and Fertility After Cancer. New York: Wiley; 1997.
Sellors JW, Mahony JB, Kaczorowski J, et al. Prevalence and predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women in Ontario, Canada. Survey of HPV in Ontario Women (SHOW) Group. CMAJ. 2000;163(5):503-508.
Shepherd JH, Spencer C, Herod J, Ind TEJ. Radical vaginal trachelectomy as a fertility-sparing procedure in women with early-stage cervical cancer--cumulative pregnancy rate in a series of 123 women. BJOG. 2006;113:719-723.
Tewari KS, Sill MW, Long HJ 3rd, Penson RT, Huang H, Ramondetta LM, Landrum LM, Oaknin A, Reid TJ, Leitao MM, Michael HE, Monk BJ. Improved survival with bevacizumab in advanced cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 20;370(8):734-43.
Tobian AA, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, et al. Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(13):1298-1309.
Tokudome S, Suzuki S, Ichikawa H, et al. Condom use promotes regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of human papillomavirus: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Cancer. 2004;112(1):164.
Troisi R, Hatch EE, Titus-Ernstoff L, et al. Cancer risk in women prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol. Int J Cancer. 2007;121(2):356-360.
Waggoner SE. Cervical cancer. Lancet. 2003;361:2217-2225.
Wheeler CM, Castellsagué X, Garland SM, et al. Cross-protective efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(1):100-110.
Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, et al. Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(25):2645-2654.
Winer RL, Lee SK, Hughes JP, et al. Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(3):218-226. Erratum in: Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(9):858.
Wright TC Jr, Massad LS, Dunton CJ, et al; 2006 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology-sponsored Consensus Conference. 2006 consensus guidelines for the management of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening tests. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197(4):346-355.
Van Pachterbeke C, Bucella D, Rozenberg S, et al. Topical treatment of CIN 2+ by cidofovir: results of a phase II, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;115(1):69-74. Epub 2009 Aug 3.
Last Revised: 01/29/2016