- How are cervical cancers and pre-cancers treated?
- Surgery for cervical cancers and pre-cancers
- Radiation therapy for cervical cancer
- Chemotherapy for cervical cancer
- Clinical trials for cervical cancer
- Complementary and alternative therapies for cervical cancer
- Treating pre-cancers and other abnormal Pap test results
- Treatment options for cervical cancer by stage
- Financial help for cervical cancer treatment
- More treatment information
Chemotherapy for cervical cancer
Systemic chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected into a vein or given by mouth. These drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach all areas of the body, making this treatment useful for killing cancer cells in most parts of the body. Chemo is often given in cycles, with each period of treatment followed by a recovery period.
When is chemotherapy used?
There are a few situations in which chemo may be recommended.
As a part of the main treatment: For some stages of cervical cancer, chemotherapy is given to help the radiation work better. When chemotherapy and radiation therapy are given together, it is called concurrent chemoradiation. One option is to give a dose of the drug cisplatin every week during radiation. This drug is given into a vein (IV) about 4 hours before the radiation appointment. Another choice is to give cisplatin along with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) every 4 weeks during radiation. Other drug combinations are also used.
Sometimes chemo is also given (without radiation) before and/or after chemoradiation.
To treat cervical cancer that has come back after treatment or has spread: Chemo may also be used to treat cancers that have spread to other organs and tissues. It can also be helpful when cancer comes back after treatment with chemoradiation.
Drugs most often used to treat cervical cancer include:
Often combinations of these are used.
Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells but also damage some normal cells, which can lead to certain side effects. Side effects depend on the type of drugs, the amount taken, and the length of time you are treated. Common side effects of chemotherapy can include:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Loss of hair
- Mouth sores
- Fatigue (tiredness)
Because chemotherapy can damage the blood-producing cells of the bone marrow, the blood cell counts might become low. This can result in:
- An increased chance of infection (from a shortage of white blood cells)
- Bleeding or bruising after minor cuts or injuries (because of a shortage of blood platelets)
- Shortness of breath (due to low red blood cell counts)
When chemo is given with radiation, the side effects are often more severe. The nausea and fatigue are often worse. Diarrhea can also be a problem if chemo is given at the same time as radiation. Problems with low blood counts can also be worse. Your healthcare team will watch for side effects and can give you medicines to prevent them or help you feel better.
Most side effects are short-term and go away after treatment is finished. It's important to tell your healthcare team if you have any side effects, as there are often ways to lessen them. For example, drugs can be given to help prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting.
Other side effects are also possible. Some of these are more common with certain chemo drugs. Your cancer care team will tell you about the possible side effects of the specific drugs you are getting.
Menstrual changes: For younger women who have not had their uterus removed as a part of treatment, changes in menstrual periods are a common side effect of chemo. Premature menopause (not having any more menstrual periods) and infertility (not being able to become pregnant) may occur and may be permanent. Some chemo drugs are more likely to do this than others. The older a woman is when she receives chemo, the more likely it is that she will become infertile or go through menopause as a result. When this happens, there is an increased risk of bone loss and osteoporosis. There are medicines that can treat or help prevent problems with bone loss.
Even if your periods have stopped on chemo, you might still be able to get pregnant. Getting pregnant while receiving chemo could lead to birth defects and interfere with treatment. This is why it’s important that women who are pre-menopausal before treatment and are sexually active discuss using birth control with their doctor. Patients who have finished treatment (like chemo) can safely go on to have children, but it's not safe to get pregnant while on treatment.
Neuropathy: Some drugs used to treat cervical cancer, including paclitaxel and cisplatin, damage nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. This (called peripheral neuropathy) can sometimes lead to symptoms (mainly in the hands and feet) like numbness, pain, burning or tingling sensations, sensitivity to cold or heat, or weakness. In most cases this gets better or even goes away once treatment is stopped, but it might last a long time in some women.
Increased risk of leukemia: Very rarely, certain chemo drugs can permanently damage the bone marrow, leading to a disease called myelodysplastic syndrome or even acute myeloid leukemia, a life-threatening cancer of white blood cells. If this is going to happen, it is usually within 10 years after treatment. In most women, the benefits of chemo in treating the cancer are likely to far exceed the risk of this serious but rare complication.
See the section called “Additional resources for cervical cancer” for a list of some documents about chemo and dealing with common side effects.
Last Medical Review: 04/11/2013
Last Revised: 01/31/2014