Can Kaposi sarcoma be prevented?
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). There are no vaccines at this time to protect people against KSHV. For now, preventing KS depends on reducing the chance of becoming infected with KSHV and reducing the chance that people who are infected with KSHV will develop KS.
Most cases of KS in the United States occur in people with AIDS. Taking measures to avoid becoming infected with HIV could prevent most cases of KS in this country.
- Since HIV can be spread through sex, avoiding unprotected sex with people infected with HIV could help prevent these infections. Many people with HIV don’t know that they are infected, so many public health workers recommend using a condom during any sexual contact. (A condom may not be needed if both people are HIV-negative and are in a mutually monogamous relationship). Abstinence is the most effective protection.
- Another way to lower the risk of getting HIV is to take a pill every day that contains ant-viral drugs. This is called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). At this time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends PrEP for people who are HIV negative and “at substantial risk for HIV.” The CDC has more information about who should use PrEP at www.cdc.gov/hiv/prevention/research/prep.
- HIV can also be spread through the use of contaminated (dirty) needles to inject recreational drugs. For people who inject drugs, the safest way to avoid HIV is to quit. However, some people are unable to quit on their own or get help in quitting, and they may not be able to stop using drugs right away. For these people, clean needles and injection supplies can help protect them. In some areas, there are programs to make sure that drug users can get clean needles and syringes.
- HIV-infected mothers can pass the virus to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Treating the mothers and infants with anti-HIV drugs and avoiding breastfeeding can greatly reduce the risk of these infections.
- In the past, blood product transfusions and organ transplants were responsible for some HIV infections. As a result of improved testing for HIV, there is now a very low risk of HIV infection from blood products or organ transplants in the United States.
For people who are infected with HIV and KSHV, taking the right medicines can reduce the chance of developing KS.
- Testing for HIV can identify people infected with this virus. People with HIV should get treatment to help strengthen their immune system, which usually includes highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART reduces the risk that people with HIV will develop KS (and AIDS). Treating infections that commonly occur in people with weakened immunity also reduces the likelihood of developing problems with KS.
- HIV-infected people who take drugs to treat herpesvirus infections (such as ganciclovir or foscarnet) are less likely to develop KS because these drugs also work against KSHV (which is a type of herpesvirus). Still, these drugs can have serious side effects, so they are only taken to treat certain viral infections, not to prevent KS.
Last Medical Review: 08/08/2014
Last Revised: 02/09/2016