EXPERT VOICES

Timely insight on cancer topics from the experts of the American Cancer Society

American Cancer Society Expert Voices

The American Cancer Society

The obesity-cancer connection, and what we can do about it

February 28, 2013

By Lewis E. Foxhall, MD

It's almost impossible to get through the holiday season without gaining a few pounds, and for many of us that means we are even more likely to be over our ideal body weight.  Sure, we all want to look good in our clothes, but being obese is not just a condition that affects our appearance.  And in March, during National Nutrition Month, it's a good chance to talk about it.

Weight gain happens when we take in more calories from food (energy) than we use up through our basic biological requirements and exercise. After a while, enough fat stores up and makes us obese. Our bodies are very efficient at taking in energy and storing it for times when it is hard to find, but in our modern environment this is working against us and our health.  For most of us it is easy to get as much food as we want, and most of us do not need to exert ourselves much for work or daily living activities.


Link between obesity and cancer


The problem with being overweight or obese, as measured by weight and height, is that it raises our risk of chronic diseases like diabetes and heart disease.  But did you know that being obese can actually increase our risk of getting cancer and may even worsen our chances of surviving after a cancer diagnosis?  In fact, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II showed significant increases in cancer occurrence in people who are the most overweight.  This link is stronger in some cancer types --including breast cancer after menopause, and cancers of the colon and rectum, pancreas, kidney, esophagus, and endometrium -- and can be associated with a major increase in risk. More...

Is proton beam therapy for prostate cancer worth the cost?

February 20, 2013

By Durado Brooks, MD, MPH


Thousands of men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each month. These men and their loved ones often turn to the internet to learn about their disease and treatment options, and these searches may lead to medical centers offering proton beam therapy.  These centers espouse the benefits of this treatment approach, and some include glowing testimonials from men who have undergone the treatment.

So is proton therapy the "magic bullet" for prostate cancer? 

 

The difference between proton therapy and traditional radiation

Proton therapy is a type of radiation treatment. Traditional radiation therapy has been used to treat cancers for a century using radioactive energy rays called "photons."  When radiation is directed at a cancerous tumor inside the body the rays must pass through normal, healthy tissue in order to reach the cancer cells. In doing so, photons often cause harm to these healthy cells in their quest to get to the tumor. 

In the case of prostate cancer, the radiation beams must pass through the skin, the bladder and the rectum on the way to the prostate gland, and once they reach the gland they encounter normal prostate cells and the nerves that control penile erections.  Damage to these tissues can lead to the complications that often accompany radiation treatment for prostate cancer, including bladder problems, rectal leakage or bleeding, and difficulty with erections.

Proton therapy is a new way to deliver radiation to tumors using tiny, sub-atomic particles (protons) instead of the photons used in conventional radiation treatment. Proton therapy uses new technology to accelerate atoms to 93,000 miles per second, separating the protons from the atom. While moving at this high-speed, the particles are "fired" at the patient's tumor. These charged particles deliver a very high dose of radiation to the cancer but release very little radiation to the normal tissue in their path.  In theory, this approach minimizes damage to healthy organs and structures surrounding the cancer.  More...

Cancer Statistics about African Americans Released

February 04, 2013

By Carol DeSantis, MPH

 

In conjunction with Black History Month, the American Cancer Society has released Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans, statistics published every 2 years. The 2013 issue reveals encouraging cancer trends for African Americans, as well as areas where significant disparities remain or are growing. Cancer disparities, or health inequity, are caused by a number of societal problems that result in greater suffering and more people dying from cancer.

 

Death rates drop, but inequity remains

The great news is that overall cancer death rates have steadily decreased for African American men and women. In fact, the most recent data show that death rates dropped faster for African American men than men in any other racial or ethnic group. That's caused the disparity in cancer death rates between African American and white men to shrink considerably. Cancer death rates among African American women are declining at a similar rate as those of white women. 

Despite these declines, however, death rates for all cancers combined remain 33% higher in black men and 16% higher in black women, compared to white men and women. African American men also have higher death rates for most of the major cancer sites (including lung, prostate, colon/rectum, liver, pancreas, and others). Notably, the higher overall cancer death rate in African American women compared to white women occurs despite lower incidence rates for all cancers combined and for breast and lung cancer.

For African American men, the drop in cancer death rates is mostly due to decreases in lung cancer; other smoking-related cancers like oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, and kidney; and prostate cancer. Remarkably, the disparity in lung cancer death rates among black and white men has been cut in half for men overall, and has been eliminated in younger adults (ages 20-39). This progress is mostly due to the fact that more African American men are quitting smoking, compared to white men. Although African American men have historically higher smoking rates compared to white men, over the last decade smoking rates have become more similar. In addition, smoking rates are lower among African American than white high school students. It is believed that if current smoking trends persist, racial differences in lung cancer death rates will be eliminated in the next 40 to 50 years. More...

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Breaking News | Disparities

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