February 25, 2014
By Katherine Sharpe, MTS
Recently, in a meeting, a representative from another patient advocacy organization made a comment that caught my attention. He said, "People vet their plumbing company more than they do their hospital." I reflected on this comment and for many people that is probably true. The Better Business Bureau has long offered "grades" on businesses, based on certain criteria. But with about 5,000 hospitals nationwide, how do you know which are the most trustworthy and are best to give treatment?
What is accreditation?
One way is through accreditation. Accreditation, simply put, is a formal process to show that a hospital meets certain standards. The standards are designed to improve the safety and quality of care provided to patients and encourage continuous improvement efforts within a hospital.
The standards focus on how patients receive care, what kinds of rights patients have, and hospital functions that are essential to providing safe, high-quality care. These might include things like clinical ethics (the making of "right" decisions in the delivery of health care), infection control and prevention, how the building is managed and maintained, and how patient information is managed. Accreditation standards are usually seen as cutting-edge yet achievable for hospitals.
These quality measures have been developed for several disease types. In cancer, for example, a facility might be required to have wide-ranging diagnostic and treatment services on-site and participate in cancer-related clinical research.
Also, there can be varying categories of accreditation, so that the best fit can be established for a particular type of center. Standards for pediatric cancer facility might be different from those for an adult cancer center, for instance. More...
February 12, 2014
By Ted Gansler, MD, MPH
In the course of my routine medical journal reading last year, I came across a short article in The Lancet Oncology about chocolate and cancer prevention. I saved that file on my computer (without reading it), thinking that it might serve as the point of departure for a lighthearted and slightly romantic Valentine's Day essay on this blog.
With that deadline only a few days away, I opened the file and read the article, as well as a few others. The good news is that chocolate does not cause cancer and that moderate consumption of dark chocolate may have a positive impact on heart disease risk. The rest is more complicated.
If you try an Internet search for words like "chocolate prevents cancer," you will find several thoughtful summaries of the available evidence. You will also find some cute but misleading articles implying that eating a lot of chocolate candy prevents cancer. And, you will find a lot of articles with cute headlines and introductions that save their unsweetened facts for the conclusion.
My favorite scientific reviews of cancer and chocolate evaluate information from pre-clinical studies, observational epidemiological studies, and clinical trials separately, and I will follow this approach to get the most thorough view of the topic.
What lab studies can tell us
Most pre-clinical studies are experiments that use lab animals (in this case, mice and rats) or cells growing in lab dishes. The theme of the cell experiments involves adding specific chemicals from chocolate (such as polyphenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins) and observing what they do to various cell processes that are known to have an effect on cancer formation, growth, spread, etc. Some of the rat and mouse experiments added specific chemicals from chocolate to the animals' food, whereas others used liquid chocolate extracts or unsweetened cocoa powder. More...