What are the differences between cancers in adults and children?
The types of cancers that develop in children are often different from the types that develop in adults. Childhood cancers are often the result of DNA changes in cells that take place very early in life, sometimes even before birth. Unlike many cancers in adults, childhood cancers are not strongly linked to lifestyle or environmental risk factors.
There are exceptions, but childhood cancers tend to respond better to treatments such as chemotherapy. Children’s bodies also tend to tolerate chemotherapy better than adults’ bodies do. But cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy can have long-term side effects, so children who survive cancer need careful attention for the rest of their lives.
Since the 1960s, most children and teens with cancer have been treated at specialized centers designed for them. Being treated in these centers offers the advantage of a team of specialists who know the differences between adult and childhood cancers, as well as the unique needs of children with cancer and their families. This team usually includes pediatric oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, pathologists, pediatric oncology nurses, and nurse practitioners.
These centers also have psychologists, social workers, child life specialists, nutritionists, rehabilitation and physical therapists, and educators who can support and educate the entire family.
Most children with cancer in the United States are treated at a center that is a member of the Children’s Oncology Group (COG). All of these centers are associated with a university or children’s hospital. As we have learned more about treating childhood cancer, it has become even more important that treatment be given by experts in this area.
Any time a child or teen is diagnosed with cancer, it affects every family member and nearly every aspect of the family’s life. You can read more about coping with these changes in our documents on children with cancer. See the Additional resources section for complete titles.
Last Medical Review: 03/07/2014
Last Revised: 01/06/2015