In recent years, new drugs that target specific parts of cancer cells have been developed. These drugs work differently from standard chemotherapy drugs. They sometimes work when chemo drugs don’t, and they often have different (and less severe) side effects. Some of these drugs might be useful in certain cases of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
Antibodies are proteins normally made by the body’s immune system to help fight infections. Man-made versions, called monoclonal antibodies, can be designed to attack a specific target, such as a substance on the surface of lymphoma cells.
Several monoclonal antibodies are now being used to treat lymphoma in adults. Some of these are now being studied for use in children as well.
Rituximab (Rituxan): This antibody attaches to a substance called CD20 on the surface of some types of lymphoma cells. This attachment seems to cause the lymphoma cell to die. Rituximab is being studied for use along with chemotherapy. The treatments are given as intravenous (IV) infusions in the doctor’s office or clinic.
Common side effects are usually mild but can include chills, fever, nausea, rashes, fatigue, and headaches during or after the infusion. Even if these symptoms occur with the first rituximab infusion, it is unusual for them to recur with later doses. Rituximab can also increase a person’s risk of some types of infections.
Brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris): This is an anti-CD30 antibody attached to a chemotherapy drug. Some lymphoma cells have the CD30 molecule on their surface. The antibody acts like a homing signal, bringing the chemo drug to the lymphoma cells, where it enters the cells and causes them to die when they try to divide into new cells.
Brentuximab can be used to treat anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) that has come back after other treatments. So far it has been used mainly in adults, but it is now being studied in children as well. It is given as an infusion into a vein (IV) every 3 weeks.
Common side effects include nerve damage (neuropathy), low blood counts, fatigue, fever, nausea and vomiting, infections, diarrhea, and cough.
Other new drugs
Other drugs that target parts of lymphoma cells are now being studied for use in children as well.
For example, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is often abnormal in ALCL. Crizotinib (Xalkori) is a newer drug that targets cells with an abnormal ALK gene. In early studies, this drug has shown very promising results in children with ALCL that is no longer responding to other treatments. Doctors are now studying the use of this drug along with chemotherapy in treating ALCL.
Last Revised: 01/27/2016