Pituitary Tumors

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Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention TOPICS

What are the risk factors for pituitary tumors?

A risk factor is anything that changes a person’s chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the lung and many other cancers.

But risk factors don’t tell us everything. Having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get the disease. And many people who get the disease may not have had any known risk factors.

Pituitary tumors have very few known risk factors, and these are related to genetics. There are no known environmental or lifestyle-related risk factors for pituitary tumors.

Family history

Rarely, pituitary tumors seem to run in families. In some cases, they are found along with a number of other tumors as part of an inherited genetic syndrome (see the next section).

Sometimes, though, only pituitary tumors occur. Some of these are due to changes in a gene called AIP. These changes can be inherited from a parent but also can occur during a person’s lifetime. Most often, the cause of pituitary tumors that run in families is not known.

Genetic syndromes

Pituitary tumors can be a part of a syndrome that includes an increased risk of several types of tumors. These syndromes are caused by abnormal changes (mutations) in a person’s genes. They include:

Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type I (MEN1) is a hereditary condition in which people have a very high risk of developing tumors of 3 glands: the pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreas. It is caused by changes in the gene MEN1, and is passed on to about half of the children of an affected parent. If the MEN1 syndrome affects your family, you should discuss testing for this condition with your doctor.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type IV (MEN4) is a rare syndrome that includes increased risks of pituitary tumors and certain other tumors. This syndrome is caused by inherited changes in a gene called CDKN1B.

McCune-Albright syndrome is caused by changes in a gene called GNAS1 that aren’t inherited but occur before birth. People with this syndrome have brown patches on their skin (called café-au-lait spots) and develop many bone problems. They also may have hormone problems and pituitary tumors.

Carney complex is a rare syndrome in which people can have heart, skin, and adrenal problems. They also have a high risk of a number of different types of tumors, including pituitary tumors. Many cases are caused by inherited changes in the gene PRKAR1A, but some are caused by changes in other genes that have not yet been identified.


Last Medical Review: 01/11/2013
Last Revised: 01/11/2013