- What is prostate cancer?
- Finding prostate cancer early
- American Cancer Society recommendations for prostate cancer early detection
- What tests can detect prostate cancer?
- What if the test results aren`t normal?
- What are the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer?
- What are the risk factors for prostate cancer?
- Can prostate cancer be prevented?
- State efforts to ensure prostate cancer screening coverage
- Medicare coverage
- Additional resources
Finding prostate cancer early
The word screening refers to testing to find a disease like cancer in people who do not have symptoms of that disease. For some types of cancer, screening can help find cancers at an early stage, when they are more easily cured. The goal of screening is to help people live healthier, longer lives.
The goal of screening for prostate cancer is to find it early, in the hope that it can be treated more effectively.
Prostate cancer can often be found early by testing the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a man's blood. Another way to find prostate cancer early is the digital rectal exam (DRE). For this exam, the doctor puts a gloved finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland. These 2 tests are described in more detail in the section, “What tests can detect prostate cancer?”
If the results of either one of these tests are abnormal, further testing is needed to see if there is a cancer. If prostate cancer is found as a result of screening with the PSA test or DRE, it will probably be at an earlier, more treatable stage than if no screening were done.
Since using early detection tests for prostate cancer became relatively common in the United States (about 1990), the prostate cancer death rate has dropped. But it isn't clear yet that this drop is a direct result of screening. It could also be caused by something else, like improvements in treatment.
There is no question that screening can help spot many prostate cancers early, but there are limits to the prostate cancer screening tests used today. Neither the PSA test nor the DRE is 100% accurate. These tests can sometimes have abnormal results even when a man does not have cancer (known as false-positive results). Normal results can also occur even when a man does have cancer (known as false-negative results). Unclear test results can cause confusion and anxiety. False-positive results can lead some men to have a prostate biopsy (with small risks of pain, infection, and bleeding) when they do not have cancer. And false-negative results can give some men a false sense of security even though they actually have cancer.
Another important issue is that even if screening detects a cancer, doctors often can't tell if the cancer is truly dangerous. Finding and treating all prostate cancers early might seem as if it would always be a good thing, but some prostate cancers grow so slowly that they would probably never cause problems. Because of an elevated PSA level, some men may be diagnosed with a prostate cancer that they would have never even known about at all. It would never have lead to their death, or even caused any symptoms.
But these men may still be treated with either surgery or radiation, either because the doctor can't be sure how quickly the cancer might grow and spread, or because the men are uncomfortable knowing they have cancer and not getting any treatment. Treatments like surgery and radiation can have urinary, bowel, and/or sexual side effects that may seriously affect a man's quality of life.
Men and their doctors may end up struggling over whether they need treatment or whether they might be able to be followed without being treated right away (an approach called watchful waiting or active surveillance). Even when men are not treated right away, they still need regular blood tests and prostate biopsies to determine the need for future treatment. These tests are linked with risks of anxiety, pain, infection, and bleeding.
To help figure out if prostate cancer screening is worthwhile, doctors are conducting large studies to see if early detection tests will lower the risk of death from prostate cancer. The most recent results from 2 large studies were conflicting, and didn't offer clear answers.
Early results from a study done in the United States found that annual screening with PSA and DRE did detect more prostate cancers than in men not screened, but this screening did not lower the death rate from prostate cancer. A European study did find a lower risk of death from prostate cancer with PSA screening (done about once every 4 years), but the researchers estimated that about 1,400 men would need to be screened (and 48 treated) in order to prevent one death from prostate cancer. Neither of these studies has shown that PSA screening helps men live longer (lowers the overall death rate).
Prostate cancer is often a slow-growing cancer, so the effects of screening in these studies may become clearer in the coming years. Both of these studies are being continued to see if longer follow-up will give clearer results. Several other large studies of prostate cancer screening are now going on as well.
At this time, the American Cancer Society recommends that men thinking about prostate cancer screening should make informed decisions based on available information, discussion with their doctor, and their own views on the benefits and side effects of screening and treatment. (See the section called “American Cancer Society recommendations for prostate cancer early detection.”)
Until more information is available, you and your doctor can decide whether you should have tests to screen for prostate cancer. There are many factors to take into account, including your age and health. If you're young and develop prostate cancer, it may shorten your life if it's not caught early. Screening men who are older or in poor health in order to find early prostate cancer is less likely to help them live longer. This is because most prostate cancers are slow-growing, and men who are older or sicker are likely to die from other causes before their prostate cancer grows enough to cause problems.
Last Medical Review: 02/27/2012
Last Revised: 02/27/2012