- How is prostate cancer treated?
- Expectant management (watchful waiting) and active surveillance for prostate cancer
- Surgery for prostate cancer
- Radiation therapy for prostate cancer
- Cryosurgery for prostate cancer
- Hormone therapy for prostate cancer
- Chemotherapy (chemo) for prostate cancer
- Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer
- Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bone
- Clinical trials for prostate cancer
- Complementary and alternative therapies for prostate cancer
Hormone therapy for prostate cancer
The goal of hormone therapy (also called androgen deprivation) is to lower the levels of the male hormones (androgens), such as testosterone, or to stop them from reaching prostate cancer cells.
In men, the main source of androgens is the testicles. The adrenal glands also make a small amount of androgens.
Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Lowering androgen levels or stopping them from getting into prostate cancer cells often makes prostate cancer shrink or grow more slowly for a time. Hormone therapy alone can control the cancer and help with symptoms, but at some point it will stop working. Hormone therapy cannot cure prostate cancer.
Hormone therapy is often used in these cases:
- In men who can’t have surgery or radiation or who can't be cured by these treatments because the cancer has already spread beyond the prostate.
- For men whose cancer remains or has come back after earlier treatment with surgery or radiation.
- Along with radiation as the first treatment in men who are at high risk of having the cancer return after treatment.
- Before radiation to try to shrink the cancer and make treatment more effective.
Several types of hormone therapy can be used to treat prostate cancer. Some lower the levels of testosterone or other androgens (male hormones). Others block the action of those hormones.
Hormone therapy that lowers androgen levels
Orchiectomy: Even though this is a type of surgery, its main effect is as a form of hormone therapy. In this operation, the surgeon removes the testicles where most of the androgens such as testosterone are made. While this is a fairly simple operation and is not as costly as some other options, it is permanent and many men have trouble accepting this operation.
LHRH analogs (luteinizing hormone-releasing analogs): These drugs lower testosterone levels just as well as orchiectomy. LHRH analogs (also called LHRH agonists) are given as shots or as small pellets of medicine put under the skin. Depending on the drug used, they are given anywhere from once a month to once a year. Although the testicles remain in place, they will shrink over time. They may even become too small to feel.
When LHRH analogs are the first given, the testosterone level goes up briefly before going down to low levels. This is called "flare." Men whose cancer has spread to the bones may have bone pain during this flare. To reduce flare, drugs called anti-androgens can be given for a few weeks before starting treatment with LHRH analogs.
LHRH antagonists: LHRH antagonists work like LHRH agonists, but they reduce testosterone levels more quickly and do not cause tumor flare like the LHRH agonists do. Degarelix (Firmagon®) is an LHRH antagonist used to treat advanced prostate cancer. It is given as a monthly shot under the skin.
Abiraterone (Zytiga®): Even when the testicles aren’t making androgens, other cells in the body can still make small amounts of male hormones. Abiraterone helps block these cells from making certain hormones, including androgens.
This drug comes in pill form. Since this drug doesn’t stop the testicles from making testosterone, men who haven’t had their testicles removed need to stay on LHRH agonist (or antagonist) treatment. Abiraterone also lowers the level of certain other hormones in the body, so prednisone (a cortisone-like drug) needs to be taken during treatment.
Drugs that stop androgens from working
Anti-androgens: Androgens have to bind to a certain protein in the cell in order to work. Most anti-androgens block androgens in the body from binding to that protein. This stops the androgens from working.
In the US, these drugs aren’t often used alone. They are sometimes used along with orchiectomy or LHRH analogs.
Enzalutamide (Xtandi®): This drug is a newer type of anti-androgen. It doesn’t block androgens from binding to the protein in the cell. Instead it stops the protein from sending a signal telling the cell to grow and divide. This drug is mainly used after other treatments have stopped working. It is also being studied to see if it can help men earlier in treatment.
Common side effects of hormone therapy
Orchiectomy, LHRH analogs, and LHRH antagonists can all cause side effects because of changes in the levels of hormones. These side effects can include:
- Less sexual desire
- Impotence (not being able to get an erection)
- Hot flashes (which may get better or even go away with time)
- Breast tenderness and growth of breast tissue
- Shrinking of testicles
- Shrinking of penis
- Bone thinning (osteoporosis), which can lead to broken bones
- Low red blood cell counts (anemia)
- Decreased mental sharpness
- Loss of muscle mass
- Weight gain
- Extreme tiredness (fatigue)
- Increased cholesterol
Some research has suggested that the risk of high blood pressure, diabetes, strokes, and heart attacks, and even death from heart disease is also higher in men treated with hormone therapy. But not all studies have found this.
Many side effects can be prevented or treated. If you are thinking about hormone therapy, ask your doctor to explain what side effects you might expect to have and what can be done to manage these problems.
For more information about hormone therapy for prostate cancer, see our document Prostate Cancer.
Last Medical Review: 08/27/2013
Last Revised: 02/25/2014