For most men with prostate cancer, treatment can remove or destroy the cancer. Completing treatment can be both stressful and exciting. You may be relieved to finish treatment, but find it hard not to worry about cancer growing or coming back. This is very common if you’ve had cancer.
For other men, the cancer may come back in other parts of the body or may never go away completely. These men may get hormone treatment or other therapies to help keep the cancer in check for as long as possible. Learning to live with cancer that does not go away can be difficult and very stressful.
Life after prostate cancer means returning to some familiar things and also making some new choices.
Ask your doctor for a survivorship care plan
Talk with your doctor about developing a survivorship care plan for you. This plan might include:
- A suggested schedule for follow-up exams and tests
- A schedule for other tests you might need in the future, such as early detection (screening) tests for other types of cancer, or tests to look for long-term health effects from your cancer or its treatment
- A list of possible late- or long-term side effects from your treatment, including what to watch for and when you should contact your doctor
- Diet and physical activity suggestions
Typical follow-up schedules after prostate cancer
Even if you have completed treatment, your doctors will still want to watch you closely. It’s very important to go to all of your follow-up appointments. During these visits, your doctors will ask questions about any problems you may have and may do exams and lab tests or imaging tests to look for signs of cancer or treatment side effects.
Some treatment side effects might last a long time or might not even show up until years after you have finished treatment. Your doctor visits are a good time to ask questions and talk about any changes, problems, or other concerns you have.
Doctor visits and tests
Your doctor visits will usually include PSA blood tests, possibly with digital rectal exams (DREs) if your prostate hasn’t been removed. These will probably begin within a few months of finishing treatment. How often you need follow-up visits and tests might depend to some extent on the stage of your cancer and the chance of it coming back. Most doctors recommend PSA tests about every 6 months or so for the first 5 years after treatment, and at least yearly after that. Bone scans or other imaging tests might also be done, depending on your medical situation.
Prostate cancer can recur even many years after treatment, which is why it’s important to keep regular doctor visits and report any new symptoms (such as bone pain or problems with urination).
Keeping health insurance and copies of your medical records
Even after treatment, it’s very important to keep health insurance. Tests and doctor visits cost a lot, and although no one wants to think of their cancer coming back, this could happen.
At some point after your cancer treatment, you might find yourself seeing a new doctor who doesn’t know about your medical history. It’s important to keep copies of your medical records to give your new doctor the details of your diagnosis and treatment. Learn more in Keeping Copies of Important Medical Records.
Can I lower my risk of prostate cancer progressing or coming back?
If you have (or have had) prostate cancer, you probably want to know if there are things you can do that might lower your risk of the cancer growing or coming back, such as exercising, eating a certain type of diet, or taking nutritional supplements. While there are some things you can do that might be helpful, more research is needed to know for sure.
Getting regular physical activity
Some research has suggested that men who exercise regularly after treatment might be less likely to die from their prostate cancer than those who don’t. It’s not clear exactly how much activity might be needed, but more seems to be better. More vigorous activity may also be more helpful than less vigorous activity. Further studies are needed to follow up on these findings.
Getting to and staying at a healthy weight
Several studies have found that men who are overweight or obese when diagnosed with prostate cancer tend to have a worse outlook. But it’s not yet clear if losing weight can lower this risk. More research is needed to help clarify this.
Some research has suggested that men who smoke are more likely to have their prostate cancer recur and are more likely to die from their cancer than men who don’t smoke. More research is needed to see if quitting smoking can help lower these risks, although quitting is already known to have a number of other health benefits.
Nutrition and dietary supplements
Some studies have suggested that eating a healthy diet that is rich in vegetables and lower in animal fats might be helpful, but more research is needed to be sure. However, we do know that a healthy diet can have positive effects on your overall health, with benefits that extend beyond your risk of prostate or other cancers.
So far, no dietary supplements have been shown to clearly help lower the risk of prostate cancer progressing or coming back. In fact, some research has suggested that some supplements, such as selenium, might even be harmful. This doesn’t mean that no supplements will help, but it’s important to know that none have been proven to do so.
Dietary supplements are not regulated like medicines in the United States – they do not have to be proven effective (or even safe) before being sold, although there are limits on what they’re allowed to claim they can do. If you are thinking about taking any type of nutritional supplement, talk to your health care team. They can help you decide which ones you can use safely while avoiding those that could be harmful.
If the cancer comes back
If your prostate cancer comes back at some point, your treatment options will depend on where it’s thought to be and what types of treatment you’ve already had. For more information, see Treating prostate cancer that remains or comes back after treatment. For more general information on dealing with a recurrence, you may also want to see When Your Cancer Comes Back: Cancer Recurrence.
Could I get a second cancer after prostate cancer treatment?
Men who’ve had prostate cancer can still get other cancers. In fact, prostate cancer survivors are at higher risk for getting some other types of cancer. Learn more in Second cancers after prostate cancer.
Moving on after prostate cancer
Feelings of depression, anxiety, or worry are normal when prostate cancer is a part of your life. Some men are affected more than others. But everyone can benefit from help and support from other people, whether friends and family, religious groups, support groups, professional counselors, or others. Learn more in Emotions After Cancer Treatment.
Sexuality and feeling good about your body
Prostate cancer treatment can often affect sexual function. Learning to be comfortable with your body during and after prostate cancer treatment is a personal journey, one that is different for everyone. Information and support can help you cope with these changes over time. Learn more in Sexuality for the Man With Cancer.
Last Revised: 03/11/2016