Akaza H, Hinotsu S, Usami M, et al. Combined androgen blockade with bicalutamide for advanced prostate cancer: Long-term follow-up of a phase 3, double-blind, randomized study for survival. Cancer. 2009;115:3437-3445.
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2016. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2016.
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans 2013-2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2013.
American Joint Committee on Cancer. Prostate. In: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010:457-464.
Antonarakis ES, Feng Z, Trock BJ, et al. The natural history of metastatic progression in men with prostate-specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy: Long-term follow-up. BJU Int. 2012;109:32-39.
Barnas JL, Pierpaoli S, Ladd P, et al. The prevalence and nature of orgasmic dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int. 2004;94:603-605.
Bill-Axelson A, Holmberg L, Garmo H, et al. Radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:932-942.
Bosland MC, Kato I, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, et al. Effect of soy protein isolate supplementation on biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: A randomized trial. JAMA. 2013;310:170-178.
Bostrom PJ, Soloway MS. Secondary cancer after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Should we be more aware of the risk? Eur Urol. 2007;52:973-982.
Brasky TM, Darke AK, Song X, et al. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids and prostate cancer risk in the SELECT Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:1132-1141.
Chin JL, Al-Zahrani AA, Autran-Gomez AM, Williams AK, Bauman G. Extended followup oncologic outcome of randomized trial between cryoablation and external beam therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer (T2c-T3b). J Urol. 2012;188:1170-1175.
de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, et al. Cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone with prednisone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) previously treated with docetaxel: Final results of a multinational phase III trial (TROPIC). J Clin Oncol 28:7s, 2010 (suppl; abstr 4508).
Epstein JI. An update of the Gleason grading system. J Urol. 2010;183:433-440.
Ewing CM, Ray AM, Lange EM, et al. Germline mutations in HOXB13 and prostate-cancer risk. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:141-149.
Fizazi K, Bosserman L, Gao G, et al. Denosumab treatment of prostate cancer with bone metastases and increased urine N-telopeptide levels after therapy with intravenous bisphosphonates: Results of a randomized phase II trial. J Urol. 2009;182:509-515.
Fleshner NE, Lucia MS, Egerdie B, et al. Dutasteride in localised prostate cancer management: The REDEEM randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;379:1103-1111.
Giovanucci E, Platz EA. Epidemiology of prostate cancer. In: Vogelzang NJ, Scardino PT, Shipley WU, Debruyne FMJ, Linehan WM, eds. Comprehensive Textbook of Genitourinary Oncology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006:9-21.
Higano CS, Schellhammer PF, Small EJ, et al. Integrated data from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials of active cellular immunotherapy with sipuleucel-T in advanced prostate cancer. Cancer. 2009;115:3670-3679.
Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2012, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2012/, based on November 2014 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2015.
Hussain M, Tangen CM, Berry DL, et al. Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:1314-1325.
Kantoff PW, Schuetz TJ, Blumenstein BA, et al. Overall survival analysis of a phase II randomized controlled trial of a Poxviral-based PSA-targeted immunotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1099-1105.
Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:30-67.
Kyrgidis A, Vahtsevanos K, Koloutsos G, et al. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: A case-control study of risk factors in breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:4634-4638.
Lin DW. Beyond PSA: Utility of novel tumor markers in the setting of elevated PSA. Urol Oncol. 2009;27:315-321.
Lu-Yao GL, Albertsen PC, Moore DF, et al. Survival following primary androgen deprivation therapy among men with localized prostate cancer. JAMA. 2008;300:173-181.
McMaster M, Feuer EJ, Tucker MA. New Malignancies Following Cancer of the Male Genital Tract. In: Curtis RE, Freedman DM, Ron E, Ries LAG, Hacker DG, Edwards BK, Tucker MA, Fraumeni JF Jr. (eds). New Malignancies Among Cancer Survivors: SEER Cancer Registries, 1973-2000. National Cancer Institute. NIH Publ. No. 05-5302. Bethesda, MD, 2006. Accessed at http://seer.cancer.gov/archive/publications/mpmono/MPMonograph_complete.pdf on December 16, 2015.
Moon K, Stukenborg GJ, Keim J, Theodorescu D. Cancer incidence after localized therapy for prostate cancer. Cancer. 2006;107:991-998.
Nanda A, Chen MH, Moran BJ, et al. Total androgen blockade versus a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist alone in men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76:1439-1444.
National Cancer Institute. Physician Data Query (PDQ). Prostate Cancer Treatment. 2015. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/types/prostate/hp/prostate-treatment-pdq on December 30, 2015.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Prostate Cancer. Version 1.2016. Accessed at www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate.pdf on December 30, 2015.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Prostate Cancer Early Detection. Version 2.2015. Accessed at www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate_detection.pdf on December 30, 2015.
Nelson CJ, Lee JS, Gamboa MC, Roth AJ. Cognitive effects of hormone therapy in men with prostate cancer: A review. Cancer. 2008;113:1097-1106.
Nelson WG, Carter HB, DeWeese TL, et al. Chapter 84: Prostate Cancer. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier; 2014.
Nieder AM, Porter MP, Soloway MS. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer increases subsequent risk of bladder and rectal cancer: A population based cohort study. J Urol. 2008;180:2005-2009; discussion 2009-10.
Ning YM, Gulley JL, Arlen PM, et al. Phase II trial of bevacizumab, thalidomide, docetaxel, and prednisone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:2070-2076.
Ornish D, Weidner G, Fair WR, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer. J Urol. 2005;174:1065-1069.
Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, et al. Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:213-223.
Perrotti M, Jain R, Abriel LM, et al. Dutasteride monotherapy in men with serologic relapse following radical therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate: A pilot study. Urol Oncol. 2012;30:133-138.
Potosky AL, Davis WW, Hoffman RM. Five-year outcomes after prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer: The Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:1358-1367.
Price MM, Hamilton RJ, Robertson CN, Butts MC, Freedland SJ. Body mass index, prostate-specific antigen, and digital rectal examination findings among participants in a prostate cancer screening clinic. Urology. 2008;71:787-791.
Quinlan DM, Epstein JI, Carter BS, Walsh PC. Sexual function following radical prostatectomy: Influence of preservation of neurovascular bundles. J Urol. 1991;145:998-1002.
Ryan CJ, Smith MR, de Bono JS, et al. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:138-148.
Ryan S, Jenkins MA, Win AK. Risk of prostate cancer in Lynch syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014;23:437-449.
Savoie M, Kim SS, Soloway MS. A prospective study measuring penile length in men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2003;169:1462-1464.
Scher HI, Fizazi K, Saad F, et al. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1187-1197.
Scher HI, Scardino PT, Zelefsky MJ. Chapter 68: Cancer of the Prostate. In: DeVita VT, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015.
Siddiqui MM, Wilson KM, Epstein MM, et al. Vasectomy and risk of aggressive prostate cancer: A 24-year follow-up study. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:3033-3038.
Skolarus TA, Wolf AM, Erb NL, et al. American Cancer Society prostate cancer survivorship care guidelines. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64:225-249.
Smith MR, Egerdie B, Hernández Toriz N, et al; Denosumab HALT Prostate Cancer Study Group. Denosumab in men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2009;36:745-755.
Sun M, Lughezzani G, Alasker A, et al. Comparative study of inguinal hernia repair after radical prostatectomy, prostate biopsy, transurethral resection of the prostate or pelvic lymph node dissection. J Urol. 2010;183:970-975.
Wilt TJ, Brawer MK, Jones KM, et al; Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) Study Group. Radical prostatectomy versus observation for localized prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:203-213.
Yu JB, Cramer LD, Herrin J, et al. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer: Comparison of toxicity. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:1195-1201.
Last Revised: 03/11/2016