- How is retinoblastoma treated?
- Surgery for retinoblastoma (enucleation)
- Radiation therapy for retinoblastoma
- Laser therapy (photocoagulation) for retinoblastoma
- Cryotherapy for retinoblastoma
- Thermotherapy for retinoblastoma
- Chemotherapy for retinoblastoma
- High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant for retinoblastoma
- Clinical trials for retinoblastoma
- Complementary and alternative therapies for retinoblastoma
- Treatment of retinoblastoma based on extent of the disease
- More treatment information for retinoblastoma
Chemotherapy for retinoblastoma
Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs to treat the retinoblastoma. Chemotherapy can be given in different ways.
In most cases, chemo drugs are injected into a vein (IV) or given by mouth. These drugs enter the bloodstream and reach throughout the body. This is known as systemic chemotherapy.
Periocular (subtenon) chemotherapy
For some advanced intraocular cancers, higher doses of chemo are needed inside the eye. Along with systemic chemotherapy, one of the drugs (carboplatin) may be injected in the tissues around the eye, where it slowly diffuses into the eyeball. This is called periocular or subtenon chemotherapy. These injections are done while the child is under anesthesia. They may cause significant redness and swelling around the eye.
A newer approach now sometimes used instead of systemic chemotherapy is to inject chemo directly into the ophthalmic artery, the main artery that supplies blood to the eye. In this technique, a very thin catheter (a long, hollow, flexible tube) is inserted into a large artery on the inner thigh and slowly threaded through the blood vessels all the way up into the ophthalmic artery. (This is done with the child asleep under general anesthesia.) The chemotherapy is then infused into the artery. The drug used most often is melphalan, but other drugs such as carboplatin and topotecan can also be used. This process may then be repeated every 3 to 4 weeks, depending on how much the tumor shrinks.
Because the chemotherapy is put directly into the artery feeding the eye, doctors can use much smaller doses of chemo drugs (less than 10% of the doses used for systemic chemo). Therefore, the side effects related to the chemotherapy are minimal.
Early results with this technique in eyes with advanced tumors have been promising, with good tumor control and few side effects in most cases. In most cases it has allowed doctors to save an eye that otherwise would have needed to be removed.
Uses of chemotherapy
There are a few situations in which chemotherapy may be used.
Chemo may be used as the first treatment to shrink some tumors that have not spread outside the eye. This is called chemoreduction. These tumors can then be treated more effectively with focal therapies such as laser therapy, cryotherapy, thermotherapy, or brachytherapy to completely kill the tumor.
Systemic (IV) chemotherapy may also be given to children whose tumors do not seem to have spread beyond the eye, but seem likely to spread because of the size and/or location of the cancer. Chemo is also sometimes used when the eye has already been removed, but the tumor was found to extend into some areas in the eye that make it more likely the cancer may have spread. This type of treatment is called adjuvant chemotherapy.
Systemic chemotherapy is also used to treat children whose retinoblastoma has spread beyond the eye, a much more critical situation. If the cancer has spread to the brain, chemotherapy may be given directly into the fluid that surrounds it, as well. Tumors outside the eye may shrink for a time with standard doses of chemotherapy, but they will usually start growing again. For this reason, doctors often prefer to use a more intense chemo regimen, usually along with a stem cell transplant. (See the next section, “High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant.”)
Doctors give systemic chemotherapy in cycles, with each period of treatment followed by a rest period to allow the body time to recover. Each chemo cycle typically lasts for a few weeks, and the total length of treatment is often several months.
Some of the drugs that can be used to treat children with retinoblastoma include:
In most cases, 2 or 3 drugs are given at the same time. A standard combination used for chemoreduction of intraocular retinoblastoma is carboplatin and vincristine, with or without etoposide. Other drugs may be used if these are not effective.
A drug called cyclosporine is sometimes given with chemo. Cyclosporine is not a chemo drug (it does not directly kill cancer cells), but it may make the tumor cells more sensitive to chemo drugs.
Possible side effects
Chemo drugs attack cells that are dividing quickly, which is why they work against cancer cells. But other cells in the body, such as those in the bone marrow (where new blood cells are made), the lining of the mouth and intestines, and the hair follicles, also divide quickly. These cells are also likely to be affected by chemo, which can lead to side effects.
Children seem to do better than adults when it comes to chemo. They tend to have less severe side effects and to recover from side effects more quickly. One benefit of this is that doctors can give them the high doses of chemo needed to kill the tumor.
The side effects of chemo depend on the type and dose of drugs given and the length of time they are taken. General side effects of chemo drugs can include:
- Hair loss
- Mouth sores
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea and vomiting
- Increased chance of infections (because of low white blood cell counts)
- Easy bruising or bleeding (because of low blood platelet counts)
- Fatigue (because of low red blood cell counts)
Most of these side effects are short-term and tend to go away after treatment is finished. There are often ways to lessen these side effects. For example, drugs can be given to help prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting. Be sure to discuss any questions about side effects with your child's cancer care team.
Along with those listed above, certain chemo drugs can cause specific side effects. For example:
Cisplatin and carboplatin can affect the kidneys. Giving the child plenty of fluids during treatment can help reduce this risk. These drugs can also cause hearing loss in young children, especially in babies younger than 6 months. Your child’s doctor may check your child’s hearing with tests during or after treatment. When carboplatin is injected directly into the tissues near the eye (periocular chemotherapy), it can cause redness and swelling in the area.
Vincristine can damage nerves. Some people may feel tingling and numbness, particularly in their hands and feet.
Some drugs used to treat retinoblastoma, such as etoposide, can increase the risk of later developing a cancer of white blood cells known as acute myeloid leukemia. Fortunately, this is not common.
Doxorubicin can cause heart damage. The risk of this happening goes up as the total amount of the drug that is given goes up. Doctors try to reduce this risk as much as possible by not giving more than the recommended doses of doxorubicin and by checking the heart with an echocardiogram (an ultrasound of the heart) during treatment.
Cyclophosphamide can damage the bladder, which can cause blood in the urine. The chance of this happening can be lowered by giving it along with plenty of fluids and with a drug called mesna, which helps protect the bladder.
For more information about chemotherapy, see our document called Understanding Chemotherapy: A Guide for Patients and Families.
Last Medical Review: 08/06/2012
Last Revised: 08/06/2012