- How is retinoblastoma treated?
- Surgery (enucleation) for retinoblastoma
- Radiation therapy for retinoblastoma
- Laser therapy (photocoagulation) for retinoblastoma
- Cryotherapy for retinoblastoma
- Thermotherapy for retinoblastoma
- Chemotherapy for retinoblastoma
- High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant for retinoblastoma
- Clinical trials for retinoblastoma
- Complementary and alternative therapies for retinoblastoma
- Treatment of retinoblastoma, based on extent of the disease
- More treatment information for retinoblastoma
Surgery (enucleation) for retinoblastoma
Surgery is not needed for all retinoblastomas, especially for smaller tumors. But if a tumor gets quite large before it is diagnosed, vision in the eye has often already been destroyed, with no hope of getting it back. The usual treatment in this case is an operation to remove the whole eye, plus part of the optic nerve attached to it. This operation, known as enucleation, is done while the child is under general anesthesia (in a deep sleep).
During the same operation, an orbital implant is usually put in to take the place of the eyeball. The implant is made out of silicone or hydroxyapatite (a substance similar to bone). It is attached to the muscles that moved the eye, so it should move the same way as the eye would have. The operation itself often takes less than an hour, and your child may be able to leave the hospital the same day.
After several weeks, you can visit an ocularist, who will create an artificial eye for your child. The artificial eye is a thin shell that fits over the orbital implant and under the eyelids, like a big contact lens. It will match the size and color of the remaining eye. Once it is in place, it will be very hard to tell it apart from the real eye.
When retinoblastoma occurs in both eyes, enucleation of both eyes would result in complete blindness. If neither eye has useful vision because of damage already caused by the cancer, this is the surest way to make sure all of the cancer is gone. But doctors may advise other types of treatment if there is any chance of saving useful vision in one or both eyes.
Possible side effects: The most obvious side effect of enucleation is the loss of vision in that eye, although most often the vision has already been lost because of the cancer.
Removing the eye also can affect the future growth of bone and other tissues around the eye socket, which can make the area look somewhat sunken. Using an orbital implant can sometimes lessen this effect. (Radiation therapy, the other major treatment option in such cases, may cause the same side effect.)
Last Medical Review: 12/05/2013
Last Revised: 12/05/2013