Melanoma Skin Cancer

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References: Melanoma skin cancer detailed guide

American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy statement – Ultraviolet radiation: A hazard to children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011;127:588-597.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2015. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2015.

American Joint Committee on Cancer. Melanoma of the skin. In: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010:325-344.

Berman B, Villa AM. Immune response modulators in the treatment of skin cancer. In: Rigel DS, Friedman RJ, Dzubow LM, Reintgen DS, Bystryn JC, Marks R, eds. Cancer of the Skin. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2005:499-513.

Curtin JA, Fridlyand J, Kageshita T, et al. Distinct sets of genetic alterations in melanoma. New Engl J Med. 2005;353:2135-2147.

Dudley ME, Yang JC, Sherry R, et al. Adoptive cell therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma: Evaluation of intensive myeloablative chemoradiation preparative regimens. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:5233-5239.

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Flaherty KT, Infante JR, Daud A, et al. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1694-703.

Flaherty KT, Robert C, Hersey P, et al. Improved survival with MEK inhibition in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:107-114.

Freedman DM, Miller BA, Tucker MA. New Malignancies Following Melanoma of the Skin, Eye Melanoma, and Non-melanoma Eye Cancer. In: Curtis RE, Freedman DM, Ron E, Ries LAG, Hacker DG, Edwards BK, Tucker MA, Fraumeni JF Jr. (eds). New Malignancies Among Cancer Survivors: SEER Cancer Registries, 1973-2000. National Cancer Institute. NIH Publ. No. 05-5302. Bethesda, MD, 2006. Accessed on 4/18/2014 at

Gangadhar TC, Fecher LA, Miller CJ, et al. Chapter 69: Melanoma. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Dorshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa. Elsevier: 2014.

Hamid O, Robert C, Daud A. Safety and tumor responses with lambrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:134-144.

Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Demidov LV, et al. Dabrafenib in BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma: A multicentre, open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;380:358-365.

Hodi FS, Lee S, McDermott DF, et al. Ipilimumab plus sargramostim vs ipilimumab alone for treatment of metastatic melanoma: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;312:1744-1753.

Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD,, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER website, April 2014.

Kubica AW, Brewer JD. Melanoma in immunosuppressed patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87:991-1003.

Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:30-67.

Leachman SA, Lowstuter K, Wadge LM. Genetic testing for melanoma. In: Rigel DS, Friedman RJ, Dzubow LM, Reintgen DS, Bystryn JC, Marks R, eds. Cancer of the Skin. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2005:281-290.

National Cancer Institute. Physician Data Query (PDQ). Melanoma Treatment. 2014. Accessed at on December 30, 2014.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Melanoma. Version 1.2015. Accessed at on December 30, 2014.

Olsen CM, Carroll HJ, Whiteman DC. Estimating the attributable fraction for melanoma: A meta-analysis of pigmentary characteristics and freckling. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:2430-2445.

Robbins PF, Morgan RA, Feldman SA, et al. Tumor regression in patients with metastatic synovial cell sarcoma and melanoma using genetically engineered lymphocytes reactive with NY-ESO-1. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:917-924.

Robert C, Long GV, Brady B, et al. Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:320-330.

Slingluff CL, Flaherty K, Rosenberg SA, Read PW. Cutaneous melanoma. In: DeVita VT, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011:1643-1691.

Topalian SL, Hodi FS, Brahmer JR, et al. Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:2443-2454.

Wolchok JD, Kluger H, Callahan MK, et al. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:122-133.

Last Medical Review: 03/19/2015
Last Revised: 03/20/2015