References: Testicular cancer detailed guide
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American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2014.
American Joint Committee on Cancer. Testis. In: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010:469-473.
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National Cancer Institute. Physician Data Query (PDQ). Testicular Cancer Treatment. 2012. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/testicular/HealthProfessional on June 19, 2013.
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Skolarus TA, Bhayani SB, Chiang HC, et al. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for low-stage testicular cancer. J Endourol. 2008;22:1485-1489.
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Last Medical Review: 11/01/2013
Last Revised: 02/11/2014