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The stage of a cancer describes how far it has spread. Your treatment options and the outlook for your recovery depend on the cancer’s stage.

The cancer’s stage is based on:

  • The results of the surgery to diagnose the cancer
  • Blood tests for tumor markers
  • Imaging tests

These are all described in the section, “How is testicular cancer found?”

The stages of testicular cancer are labeled using Roman numerals I through III (1 to 3), sometimes followed by a letter. As a rule, the lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. A higher stage means a more advanced cancer.

If you have testicular cancer, ask your doctor or nurse to explain its stage in a way that you can understand. Knowing about the stage of your cancer can help you take a more active role in making decisions about your treatment.

Our detailed guide Testicular Cancer has more information about staging of testicular cancer.

Last Medical Review: 01/20/2015
Last Revised: 02/12/2016