Vaginal Cancer

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References: Vaginal cancer detailed guide

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2014.

Ault KA, Future II study group. Effect of prophylactic human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine on risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, grade 3, and adenocarcinoma in situ: a combined analysis of four randomised clinical trials. Lancet. 2007 Jun 2;369(9576):1861–1868.

Benedetti Panici P, Bellati F, Plotti F, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery in patients affected by vaginal carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2008 Nov;111(2):307-11. Epub 2008 Aug 16.

Bleeker MC, Hogewoning CJ, Voorhorst FJ, et al. Condom use promotes regression of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Cancer. 2003 Dec 10;107(5):804-810.

Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, et al. Male circumcision, penile human papilloma virus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 1; 346(15):1105-1112.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). FDA licensure of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV2, Cervarix) for use in females and updated HPV vaccination recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 May 28;59(20):626-629.

Daling JR, Madeleine MM, Schwartz SM, et al. A population-based study of squamous cell vaginal cancer: HPV and cofactors. Gynecol Oncol 2002; 84:263–270.

Dalrymple JL, Russell AH, Lee SW, et al. Chemoradiation for primary invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004 Jan-Feb;14(1):110–117.

Eifel PJ, Berek JS, Markman MA. Cancer of the Cervix, Vagina and Vulva. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 9th edition. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011:1311–1344.

Flannelly G. Preinvasive diseases of the cervix, vagina, and vulva. In: Gynecologic Cancer: Controversies in Management. Gershenson D, Gore M, McGuire W, Quinn M, Thomas G, eds. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Science; 2004: 79–92.

FUTURE I/II Study Group, Dillner J, Kjaer SK, Wheeler CM, et al. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010 Jul 20;341:c3493.

Garland SM, Hernandez-Avila M, Wheeler CM, et al. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent anogenital diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1928–1943

Gray RH, Serwadda D, Kong X, Makumbi F, et al. Male circumcision decreases acquisition and increases clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-negative men: a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2010 May 15;201(10):1455-1462.

Grigsby PW. Vaginal Cancer. In: Gynecologic Cancer: Controversies in Management. Gershenson D, Gore M, McGuire W, Quinn M, Thomas G, eds. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Science; 2004: 113–118.

Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, Thompson P, McDuffie K, Shvetsov YB, Kamemoto LE, Killeen J, Ning L, Goodman MT. Transmission of human papillomavirus in heterosexual couples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jun;14(6):888-94.

Kosary CL. Cancer of the Vagina. In: Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner M-J (editors). SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, NIH Pub. No. 07-6215, Bethesda, MD, 2007.

Lu B, Wu Y, Nielson CM, Flores R, et al. Factors associated with acquisition and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of US men: a prospective study. J Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 1;199(3):362-371.

Madsen BS, Jensen HL, van den Brule AJ, Wohlfahrt J, Frisch M. Risk factors for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva and vagina--population-based case-control study in Denmark. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:2827–2834.

Paavonen J, Naud P, Salmerón J, Wheeler CM, Chow SN, Apter D, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet. 2009 Jul 25;374(9686):301–314.

PDQ database. Vaginal Cancer. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 9/7/2012. Accessed at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/vaginal/HealthProfessional on September 13, 2012.

Perez CA, Gersell DJ, McGuire WP, Morris M. Vagina. In: Hoskins WJ, Perez CA, Young RC, eds. Principles and Practice of Gynecologic Oncology. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000:811–840.

Rotmensch J, Yamada SD. Neoplasms of the vulva and vagina. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E. Cancer Medicine 6. Hamilton, Ont: BC Decker; 2003. 1769–1777.

Samant R, Lau B, E C, Le T, Tam T. Primary vaginal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiation using Cis-platinum. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:746-50. Epub 2007 May 18.

Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson H, et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012 May-Jun;62(3):147-72. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Shah CA, Goff BA, Lowe K, Peters WA 3rd, Li CI. Factors affecting risk of mortality in women with vaginal cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 May;113(5):1038–1045.

Society of Gynecologic Oncologists Clinical Practice Guidelines: Vaginal cancer. Oncology. 1998;12:449–452.

Tobian AA, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, Kigozi G, et al. Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1298-1309.

Tokudome S, Suzuki S, Ichikawa H, et al. Condom use promotes regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of human papillomavirus: a randomized clinical trial. Int J Cancer. 2004 Oct 20;112(1).

Weiderpass E, Ye W, Tamimi R, Trichopolous D, Nyren O, Vainio H, Adami HO. Alcoholism and risk for cancer of the cervix uteri, vagina, and vulva. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10:899–901.

Wheeler CM, Castellsagué X, Garland SM, et al. Cross-protective efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Nov 8.

Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, et al. Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 22;354(25):2645-2654.

Winer RL, Lee SK, Hughes JP, Adam DE, Kiviat NB, Koutsky LA. Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Feb 1;157(3):218-26. Erratum in: Am J Epidemiol. 2003 May 1;157(9):858.


Last Medical Review: 01/30/2013
Last Revised: 02/13/2014