Vulvar Cancer

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References: Vulvar cancer detailed guide

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2014.

American Joint Committee on Cancer. Vulvar Cancer. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2010:379–386.

Anderson TA, Schick V, Herbenick D, Dodge B, Fortenberry JD. A study of human papillomavirus on vaginally inserted sex toys, before and after cleaning, among women who have sex with women and men. Sex Transm Infect. 2014 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Ault KA, Future II study group. Effect of prophylactic human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine on risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, grade 3, and adenocarcinoma in situ: a combined analysis of four randomised clinical trials. Lancet. 2007 Jun 2;369(9576):1861–1868.

Bleeker MC, Hogewoning CJ, Voorhorst FJ, et al. Condom use promotes regression of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Cancer. 2003 Dec 10;107(5):804-10.

Bosquet JG, Magrina JF, Gaffey TA, et al. Long-term survival and disease recurrence in patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gyn Onc 2005;97:828–833

Burke TW, Russell AH. Advanced-stage vulvar cancer. In: Gynecologic Cancer: Controversies in Management. Gershenson D, Gore M, McGuire W, Quinn M, Thomas G, eds. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Science, 2004: 105–112.

Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, Meijer CJ, et al. Male circumcision, penile human papilloma virus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 1; 346(15):1105-1112.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). FDA licensure of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV2, Cervarix) for use in females and updated HPV vaccination recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 May 28;59(20):626-629.

Creasman WT, Phillips JL, Menck HR. The National Cancer Database report on early stage invasive vulvar carcinoma. Cancer. 1997;80:505–513.

Eifel PJ, Berek JS, Markman MA.. Cancer of the Cervix, Vagina and Vulva. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 9th edition. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011:1311–1344.

Flannelly G. Preinvasive diseases of the cervix, vagina, and vulva. In: Gynecologic Cancer: Controversies in Management. Gershenson D, Gore M, McGuire W, Quinn M, Thomas G, eds. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Science, 2004:79–92.

FUTURE I/II Study Group, Dillner J, Kjaer SK, Wheeler CM, et al. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010 Jul 20;341:c3493

Garland SM, Hernandez-Avila M, Wheeler CM, et al. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent anogenital diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 10;356(19):1928–1943

Gray RH, Serwadda D, Kong X, Makumbi F, et al. Male circumcision decreases acquisition and increases clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-negative men: a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2010 May 15;201(10):1455-1462.

Hassanzade M, Attaran M, Treglia G, Yousefi Z, Sadeghi R. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2013 Jul;130(1):237-45. Epub 2013 Apr 20.

Hernandez BY, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, Thompson P, McDuffie K, Shvetsov YB, Kamemoto LE, Killeen J, Ning L, Goodman MT. Transmission of human papillomavirus in heterosexual couples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jun;14(6):888-94.

Kenter GG, Welters MJ, Valentijn AR, et al. Vaccination against HPV-16 oncoproteins for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. N Engl J Med. 2009 Nov 5;361(19):1838–1847.

Kosary CL. Cancer of the Vulva. In: Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner M-J (editors). SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, NIH Pub. No. 07-6215, Bethesda, MD, 2007

Levenback CF, van der Zee AG, Rob L, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with gynecologic cancers Expert panel statement from the International Sentinel Node Society Meeting, February 21, 2008. Gynecol Oncol. 2009 Aug;114(2):151–156.

Lu B, Wu Y, Nielson CM, Flores R, et al. Factors associated with acquisition and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of US men: a prospective study. J Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 1;199(3):362-371.

Madeleine MM, Daling JR, Carter JJ, et al. Cofactors with human papillomavirus in a population-based study of vulvar cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Oct 15;89(20):1516–1523.

Madsen BS, Jensen HL, van den Brule AJ, Wohlfahrt J, Frisch M. Risk factors for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva and vagina--population-based case-control study in Denmark. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;122(12):2827–2834.

Mert I, Semaan A, Winer I, Morris RT, Ali-Fehmi R. Vulvar/vaginal melanoma: an updated surveillance epidemiology and end results database review, comparison with cutaneous melanoma and significance of racial disparities. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013 Jul;23(6):1118-25.

Olawaiye A, Lee LM, Krasner C, Horowitz N. Treatment of squamous cell vulvar cancer with the anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Tarceva. Gynecol Oncol. 2007 Sep;106(3):628–630. Epub 2007 Jun 11.

Paavonen J, Naud P, Salmerón J, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet. 2009 Jul 25;374(9686):301–314.

PDQ database. Vulvar Cancer. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 9/7/2012. Accessed at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/vulvar/HealthProfessional on September 12, 2012.

Reade CJ, Eiriksson LR, Mackay H. Systemic therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: current status and future directions. Gynecol Oncol. 2014 Mar;132(3):780-9. Epub 2013 Dec 1.

Richard SD, Krivak TC, Beriwal S, Zorn KK. Recurrent metastatic vulvar carcinoma treated with cisplatin plus cetuximab. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):1132–1135. Epub 2007 Nov 16.

Rotmensch J, Yamada SD. Neoplasms of the vulva and vagina. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, Bast RC, Gansler TS, Holland JF, Frei E. Cancer Medicine 6. Hamilton, Ont: BC Decker; 2003. 1769–1777.

Rouzier R, Haddad B, Atallah D, et al. Surgery for vulvar cancer. Clin Obst Gyn 2005;48:869–878.

Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson H, et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012 May-Jun;62(3):147-72. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Sideri M, Jones RW, Wilkinson EJ, Preti M, Heller DS, Scurry J, Haefner H, Neill S. Squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: 2004 modified terminology, ISSVD Vulvar Oncology Subcommittee. J Reprod Med. 2005 Nov;50(11):807-10.

Society of Gynecologic Oncologists Clinical Practice Guidelines: Vulvar cancer. Oncology. 1998;12:275–282.

Trimble EL, Kosary C, Mooney M, Saxman S. Melanoma of the Female Genital Tract. In: Gynecologic Cancer: Controversies in Management. Gershenson DM, McGuire WP, Gore M, Quinn MA, Thomas G, eds. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Science, 2004: 931-939.

Van der Avoort IAM, Shirango H, Hovenaars BM, et al. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a multifactorial disease following two separate and independent pathways. Int J Gyn Path 2005;25:22–29.

Van der Velden J. Controversies in early vulvar cancer. In: Gynecologic Cancer: Controversies in Management. Gershenson D, Gore M, McGuire W, Quinn M, Thomas G, eds. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Science, 2004: 93–103.

van Seters M, van Beurden M, ten Kate FJ, et al. Treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia with topical imiquimod. N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr 3;358(14):1465–1473.

Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, et al. Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 22;354(25):2645-2654.

Winer RL, Lee SK, Hughes JP, Adam DE, Kiviat NB, Koutsky LA. Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Feb 1;157(3):218-26. Erratum in: Am J Epidemiol. 2003 May 1;157(9):858.


Last Medical Review: 07/02/2014
Last Revised: 12/11/2014