- What is a mammogram?
- Types of mammograms
- How is a mammogram done?
- Help with mammogram costs
- Regulation of mammography
- What does the doctor look for on a mammogram?
- Breast biopsy
- Mammogram reports – BI-RADS
- Mammograms in special circumstances
- Improving mammograms
- Other breast imaging tests
- Experimental and other breast imaging methods
- To learn more
American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2011-2012. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2011.
American College of Radiology. The American College of Radiology BI-RADS ATLAS and MQSA: Frequently Asked Questions. 11/29/12. Accessed at http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/PDF/QualitySafety/Resources/BIRADS/BIRADSFAQs.pdf on February 6, 2013.
American College of Radiology - Radiology Society of North America. Patient Safety: Radiation Exposure in X-ray and CT Examinations. Accessed at www.radiologyinfo.org/en/safety/index.cfm?pg=sfty_xray on December 3, 2012.
Baker L. Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project: Five year summary report. CA Cancer J Clin. 1982;32:196-229.
Beahrs OH, et al. Report of the working group to review the NCI-ACS Breast Cancer Demonstration Project. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1979;62:639-698.
Brown SL, Silverman BG, Berg WA. Rupture of silicone-gel breast implants: causes, sequelae, and diagnosis. Lancet. 1997;350:1531-1537.
Fenton JJ, Taplin SH, Carney PA, et al. Influence of computer-aided detection on performance of screening mammography. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1399-1409.
Fitzgerald A, Berentson-Shaw J, New Zealand Guidelines Group. Thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool: a systematic review. N Z Med J. 2012;125(1351):80-91.
Freeman MT. Imaging: New techniques. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010:171-192.
Helvie MA. Imaging analysis: Mammography. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010:116-130.
Hortobagyi GN, Esserman L, Buchholz TA. Neoplasms of the Breast. In: Hong WK, Bast RC, Hait WN, et al, eds. Cancer Medicine. 8th ed. Shelton CT: People’s Medical Publishing House – USA/BC Decker; 2010:1393-1459.
Hubbard RA, Kerlikowske K, Flowers CI, et al. Cumulative probability of false-positive recall or biopsy recommendation after 10 years of screening mammography: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:481-492.
Kontos M, Wilson R, Fentiman I. Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) of breast lesions: sensitivity and specificity of detection of primary breast cancers. Clin Radiol. 2011;66(6):536-539.
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Pisano ED, Gatsonis C, Hendrick E, et al. Diagnostic performance of digital versus film mammography for breast-cancer screening. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1773-1783.
Puliti D, Duffey SW, Miccinesi G, et al. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe: a literature review. J Med Screen, 2012;19:Suppl 1:42-56.
Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, et al for the American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Advisory Group. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57:75-79.
Smith RA, D’Orsi C, Newell MS. Screening for breast cancer. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010:87-115.
Smith RA, Saslow D, Sawyer KA, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast cancer screening: update 2003. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003;53:141-169.
Tabar L, Vitak B, Tony HH, et al. Beyond randomized controlled trials: organized mammographic screening substantially reduces breast carcinoma mortality. Cancer. 2001;91:1724-1731.
The Radiology Assistant. BI-RADS. Introduction to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, by Harmien Zonderland. Accessed at www.radiologyassistant.nl/en/4349108442109 on December 3, 2012.
US National Institutes of Health. ClinicalTrials.gov. For current clinical trial information. Accessed at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/home on December 3, 2012.
Last Medical Review: 12/17/2012
Last Revised: 02/07/2013