Cancer Prevention Studies Overviews
Cancer Prevention Study I
The Cancer Prevention Study I (CPS-I) is a prospective mortality study of approximately 1 million adult men and women enrolled between October 1, 1959 and February 15, 1960, and followed up through September 1972. Participants were recruited into the study in 25 states by approximately 68,000 volunteers for the American Cancer Society. Enrollment was by families (households). All family members age 30 years and over were recruited if at least one participating household member was 45 years or older.
At the time of enrollment, each participant completed a four-page baseline questionnaire providing information on height, weight, demographic characteristics, personal and family history of cancer and other diseases, menstrual and reproductive history (women), occupation, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, and physical activity. Supplemental questionnaires were mailed to participants in 1961, 1963, 1965, and 1972, inquiring about cancer and changes in smoking habits. These additional questionnaires were used only to confirm vital status.
The participants' vital status was determined annually (in October) from 1960 through 1965, and again in 1971 and 1972, through personal inquiries by the volunteers. At each of these 8 follow-ups, the volunteers were asked whether their enrollees were alive or dead and the date and place of all deaths. Death certificates were obtained from State Health departments.
Cancer Prevention Study II
The Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II), which began in 1982, is a prospective mortality study of approximately 1.2 million American men and women. Approximately 77,000 volunteers for the American Cancer Society recruited participants into the study in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.
Each participant completed a four-page, confidential questionnaire. Baseline questions included personal identifiers, height, weight, demographic characteristics, personal and family history of cancer and other diseases, use of medicines and vitamins, menstrual and reproductive history (women), occupational exposures, dietary habits, alcohol and tobacco use, and various questions regarding exercise and behavior.
During the 24 years of completed mortality follow-up currently available for this cohort (1982-2006), 491,188 deaths have occurred; cause of death has been obtained for 99.3% of all deaths. Follow-up of CPS-II is expected to continue for many years to maximize the information obtained from this valuable study.
CPS-II Nutrition Survey
The CPS-II Nutrition Survey cohort was established in 1992 and 1993 as a subset of the larger CPS-II cohort with two primary objectives: 1) to obtain detailed information on dietary exposures and to update with additional exposure information, and 2) to conduct prospective cancer incidence follow-up in addition to mortality follow-up.
With these objectives in mind, staff again contacted close to half of the CPS-II population (men and women ages 50-74 in 21 states) in 1992 and 1993 and obtained updated information on nutrition and other cancer risk factors for 184,194 men and women. The 21 states participating in this survey were California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Mexico, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin.
New questionnaires were sent to the CPS-II Nutrition Survey cohort in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007. These questionnaires updated information on exposures and also captured self-reported cancer incidence.
Ongoing cancer incidence follow-up for the CPS-II Nutrition Survey cohort is conducted by validating self-reported incidence cancers using medical records or linkage with state cancer registries. Nearly 30,000 incident cancers were reported in the interval 1992 to 2005. These data are used to examine the association of many factors (e.g., diet, lifestyle, and environment) with cancer incidence. Mortality follow-up of the entire CPS-II Nutrition Survey cohort will allow the study of the association between reported risk factors and survival. Initial findings include marked associations between obesity and aggressive forms of prostate cancer.
CPS-II Biorepository (addition of blood and cheek cell samples to CPS-II)
The Society has collected and archived blood samples from 40,000 participants and cheek cell samples (as a source of DNA) from 70,000 participants in the CPS-II Nutrition Survey cohort. The addition of archived biological specimens to the questionnaire information provided by the same individuals will provide a valuable long-term resource for examining many scientific questions, including how nutritional factors, hormones, and genetic susceptibility affect cancer risk. In separate collaborations with the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative and with the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort consortium (BPC3), inherited variations that increase the risk for breast and prostate cancer were recently described. Further analysis of other genetic information collected is ongoing.
Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3)
The Society’s Epidemiology Research Program is inviting men and women between the ages of 30 and 65 years who have no personal history of cancer to join a historic research study. The ultimate goal is to enroll 300,000 adults from various racial/ethnic backgrounds from across the United States. The purpose of Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3) is to better understand ways to prevent cancer. This multi-year survey will study lifestyle, behavioral, environmental and genetic factors that may cause or prevent cancer with the ultimate goal of eliminating cancer as a major health problem for this and future generations.
Study enrollment took place at select Relay For Life® events in local communities. CPS Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3) is a grassroots effort in which Relay participants from across the country can contribute to cancer research not only through their fund-raising efforts, but also by participating actively in research.
Information about Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3) and any upcoming Relay For Life® events where future enrollment will be held is provided at www.cancer.org/cps3.