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CPS-I Publications

 

1.         Knoke JD, Burns DM, Thun MJ. The change in excess risk of lung cancer attributable to smoking following smoking cessation: an examination of different analytic approaches using CPS-I data. Cancer Causes Control. Mar 2008;19(2):207-219.
2.         Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Burns D, Jemal A, Shanks TG, Calle EE. Lung cancer death rates in lifelong nonsmokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. May 17 2006;98(10):691-699.
3.         Mackay JJ, A. Lee, NC. Parkin, MC. The Cancer Atlas: American Cancer Society; 2006.
4.         Henley SJ, Thun MJ. Response to: Foulds J and Ramstrom L letter regarding "Causal effects of smokeless tobacco on mortality in CPS-I and CPS-II". Cancer Causes Control. Aug 2006;17(6):857-858.
5.         Henley SJ, Thun MJ, Connell C, Calle EE. Two large prospective studies of mortality among men who use snuff or chewing tobacco (United States). Cancer Causes Control. May 2005;16(4):347-358.
6.         Thun MH, SJ. Cigar and/or Pipe smoking and cancer. In: IARC Monographs on The Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Monograph 83: Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2004.
7.         Knoke JD, Shanks TG, Vaughn JW, Thun MJ, Burns DM. Lung cancer mortality is related to age in addition to duration and intensity of cigarette smoking: an analysis of CPS-I data. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Jun 2004;13(6):949-957.
8.         Thun MJ. Passive smoking: tobacco industry publishes disinformation. BMJ. Aug 30 2003;327(7413):502-503; author reply 504-505.
9.         Thun M. Editorial: More misleading science from the tobacco industry. BMJ 2003(3):352-353.
10.       Shanks TA, CM. Changes in smoking habits in the American Cancer Society CPS I during 12 years of follow-up. In: National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 15: Those Who Continue to Smoke. Bethesda,MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003. . Bethesda, MD2003:71-81.
11.       Will JC, Williamson DF, Ford ES, Calle EE, Thun MJ. Intentional weight loss and 13-year diabetes incidence in overweight adults. Am J Public Health. Aug 2002;92(8):1245-1248.
12.       Steenland K, Henley J, Thun M. All-cause and cause-specific death rates by educational status for two million people in two American Cancer Society cohorts, 1959-1996. Am J Epidemiol. Jul 1 2002;156(1):11-21.
13.       Rodriguez C, Jacobs EJ, Patel AV, et al. Jewish ethnicity and prostate cancer mortality in two large US cohorts. Cancer Causes Control. Apr 2002;13(3):271-277.
14.       Korte JE, Brennan P, Henley SJ, Boffetta P. Dose-specific meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis of the relation between alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol. Mar 15 2002;155(6):496-506.
15.       Will JC, Galuska DA, Ford ES, Mokdad A, Calle EE. Cigarette smoking and diabetes mellitus: evidence of a positive association from a large prospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. Jun 2001;30(3):540-546.
16.       Thun MJ, Burns DM. Health impact of "reduced yield" cigarettes: a critical assessment of the epidemiological evidence. Tob Control. 2001;10 Suppl 1:i4-11.
17.       Thun MH, SJ. Miracle-McMahill, HL. Health Consequences of Tobacco Use: Total Mortality. In: Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General - 2001. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Atlanta2001.
18.       Rodriguez C, Patel AV, Calle EE, Jacobs EJ, Chao A, Thun MJ. Body mass index, height, and prostate cancer mortality in two large cohorts of adult men in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Apr 2001;10(4):345-353.
19.       Burns DM, JM. Shanks, TG. Thun, MJ. Samet, JM. Smoking lower yield cigarettes and disease risks. In: National Cancer Institute. Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 13. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, NIH Pub. No. 02-50742001:1201-1205.
20.       Williamson DF, Thompson TJ, Thun M, Flanders D, Pamuk E, Byers T. Intentional weight loss and mortality among overweight individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. Oct 2000;23(10):1499-1504.
21.       Thun MJ, Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Wingo PA. Epidemiological research at the American Cancer Society. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Sep 2000;9(9):861-868.
22.       Stevens JJC, J. Thun, MJ. The impact of smoking and pre-existing illness on the relationship between body-mass index and mortality. . Nutr Res 2000:1259-1277.
23.       Stevens J, Cai J, Juhaeri, Thun MJ, Wood JL. Evaluation of WHO and NHANES II standards for overweight using mortality rates. J Am Diet Assoc. Jul 2000;100(7):825-827.
24.       Williamson DF, Pamuk E, Thun M, Flanders D, Byers T, Heath C. Prospective study of intentional weight loss and mortality in overweight white men aged 40-64 years. Am J Epidemiol. Mar 15 1999;149(6):491-503.
25.       Will JC, Vinicor F, Calle EE. Is diabetes mellitus associated with prostate cancer incidence and survival? Epidemiology. May 1999;10(3):313-318.
26.       Stevens J, Cai J, Juhaeri, Thun MJ, Williamson DF, Wood JL. Consequences of the use of different measures of effect to determine the impact of age on the association between obesity and mortality. Am J Epidemiol. Aug 15 1999;150(4):399-407.
27.       Poole CA, Byers T, Calle EE, Bondy J, Fain P, Rodriguez C. Influence of a family history of cancer within and across multiple sites on patterns of cancer mortality risk for women. Am J Epidemiol. Mar 1 1999;149(5):454-462.
28.       Enstrom JE, Heath CW, Jr. Smoking cessation and mortality trends among 118,000 Californians, 1960-1997. Epidemiology. Sep 1999;10(5):500-512.
29.       Will JC, Galuska DA, Vinicor F, Calle EE. Colorectal cancer: another complication of diabetes mellitus? Am J Epidemiol. May 1 1998;147(9):816-825.
30.       Stevens J, Plankey MW, Williamson DF, et al. The body mass index-mortality relationship in white and African American women. Obes Res. Jul 1998;6(4):268-277.
31.       Stevens J, Cai J, Pamuk ER, Williamson DF, Thun MJ, Wood JL. The effect of age on the association between body-mass index and mortality. N Engl J Med. Jan 1 1998;338(1):1-7.
32.       Shanks TB, TM. . Disease Consequences of Cigar Smoking. In: Burns D., Cummings K.M., Hoffman, D., eds. Cigars: Health Effects and Trends. Bethesda MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health; 1998: chap 4. Monograph 9. Bethesda MD1998.
33.       Thun MM, DG. Day-Lally, C. Namboodiri, MM. Calle, EE. Flanders, WD. Adams, SL. Heath, CW. Age and the exposure-response relationships between cigarette smoking and premature death in Cancer Prevention Study II. In: National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Tobacco Control, Monograph 8: Changes in Cigarette-Related Disease Risks and Their Implication for Prevention and Control. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 19971997:383-475.
34.       Thun MJ, Lally CA, Flannery JT, Calle EE, Flanders WD, Heath CW, Jr. Cigarette smoking and changes in the histopathology of lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. Nov 5 1997;89(21):1580-1586.
35.       Thun MJ, Heath CW, Jr. Changes in mortality from smoking in two American Cancer Society prospective studies since 1959. Prev Med. Jul-Aug 1997;26(4):422-426.
36.       Thun MD-L, C. Myers, DG. Calle, EE. Flanders, WD. Zhu, BP. Namboodiri, MM. Heath, CW. Trends in tobacco smoking and mortality from cigarette use in Cancer Prevention Studies I (1959-1965) and II (1982-1988). In: National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Tobacco Control, Monograph 8: Changes in Cigarette-Related Disease Risks and Their Implication for Prevention and Control. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 19971997:305-382.
37.       Stevens JP, ER. Cai, J. Williamson, DF. Thun, MJ. Wood, JL. . Age-related changes in the impact of body weight on cardiovascular mortality in white men. . Can J Cardiol. . 1997(13 Suppl B.).
38.       Holmberg L, Ekbom A, Calle E, Mokdad A, Byers T. Breast cancer mortality in relation to self-reported use of breast self-examination. A cohort study of 450,000 women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. Apr 1997;43(2):137-140.
39.       Burns DS, TG. Choi, W. Thun, MJ. Heath, CW. Garfinkel, L. . The American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I: 12-year follow-up of one million men and women. In: National Cancer Institute, Smoking and Tobacco Control, Monograph 8: Changes in Cigarette-Related Disease Risks and Their Implication for Prevention and Control. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, 1997. NIH Publication No.97-4213, 113-304. Washington, DC1997:113-304.
40.       Stevens JL, KG. Thun, MJ. . Associations of BMI with all cause and CVD mortality in nonsmoking elderly African American women. . Circulation. . 1996(94): I-213.
41.       Michels-Blanck H, Byers T, Mokdad AH, Will JC, Calle EE. Menstrual patterns and breast cancer mortality in a large U.S. cohort. Epidemiology. Sep 1996;7(5):543-546.
42.       Williamson DF, Pamuk E, Thun M, Flanders D, Byers T, Heath C. Prospective study of intentional weight loss and mortality in never-smoking overweight US white women aged 40-64 years. Am J Epidemiol. Jun 15 1995;141(12):1128-1141.
43.       Thun MJ, Day-Lally CA, Calle EE, Flanders WD, Heath CW, Jr. Excess mortality among cigarette smokers: changes in a 20-year interval. Am J Public Health. Sep 1995;85(9):1223-1230.
44.       Holmberg L, Ekbom A, Calle E, Mokdad A, Byers T. Parental age and breast cancer mortality. Epidemiology. Jul 1995;6(4):425-427.
45.       Istvan JA, Cunningham TW, Garfinkel L. Cigarette smoking and body weight in the Cancer Prevention Study I. Int J Epidemiol. Oct 1992;21(5):849-853.
46.       Shopland DR, Eyre HJ, Pechacek TF. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality in 1991: is lung cancer now the leading cause of death among smokers in the United States? J Natl Cancer Inst. Aug 21 1991;83(16):1142-1148.
47.       Garfinkel L, Silverberg E. Lung cancer and smoking trends in the United States over the past 25 years. CA Cancer J Clin. May-Jun 1991;41(3):137-145.
48.       Lew EA, Garfinkel L. Mortality at ages 75 and older in the Cancer Prevention Study (CPS I). CA Cancer J Clin. Jul-Aug 1990;40(4):210-224.
49.       Garfinkel LB, P. . Smoking and Estrogen-Related Sites Data from American Cancer Society Studies. In Smoking and Hormone Related Disorders. N. Wald, J. Baron (Eds.). Oxford, England: Oxford Medical Publications, 1990. Oxford, England: Oxford Medical Publications; 1990.
50.       Garfinkel L, Boffetta P. Association between smoking and leukemia in two American Cancer Society prospective studies. Cancer. May 15 1990;65(10):2356-2360.
51.       Boffetta P, Garfinkel L. Alcohol drinking and mortality among men enrolled in an American Cancer Society prospective study. Epidemiology. Sep 1990;1(5):342-348.
52.       U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation. A Report on the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.   DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 90-8416, 1990 1990:75-84.
53.       Stellman SD, Garfinkel L. Lung cancer risk is proportional to cigarette tar yield: evidence from a prospective study. Prev Med. Jul 1989;18(4):518-525.
54.       U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 89-8411.1989:140-152.
55.       Garfinkel L, Boffetta P, Stellman SD. Alcohol and breast cancer: a cohort study. Prev Med. Nov 1988;17(6):686-693.
56.       Lew EG, L. . Differences in mortality and longevity by sex, smoking habits, and health status. . Trans Soc Actuaries. . 1987(39):19-35.
57.       Stellman S. Influence of cigarette yield on risk of coronary heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Zaridze D, Peto R, (Eds.) Tobacco: A Major International Health Hazard. IARC Scientific Publications No.74. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. . IARC Scientific Publications No.74. 1986:237-249.
58.       Stellman S. Cigarette yield and cancer risk: evidence from case-control and prospective studies. In: Zaridze D, Peto R, (Eds.) Tobacco: A Major International Health Hazard. IARC Scientific Publications No.74. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. . IARC Scientific Publications No.74. 1986:197-209.
59.       Garfinkel L, Stellman SD. Cigarette smoking among physicians, dentists, and nurses. CA Cancer J Clin. Jan-Feb 1986;36(1):2-8.
60.       Garfinkel L. Overweight and mortality. Cancer. Oct 15 1986;58(8 Suppl):1826-1829.
61.       Wang LD, Hammond EC. Lung cancer, fruit, green salad and vitamin pills. Chin Med J (Engl). Mar 1985;98(3):206-210.
62.       Lew EG, L. . Mortality at ages 65 and over in a middle-class population. . Trans Soc Actuaries. . 1985;36:257-295.
63.       Lew EA. Mortality and weight: insured lives and the American Cancer Society studies. Ann Intern Med. Dec 1985;103(6 ( Pt 2)):1024-1029.
64.       Garfinkel L. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the American Cancer Society prospective studies. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. May 1985;67:49-52.
65.       Garfinkel L. Overweight and cancer. Ann Intern Med. Dec 1985;103(6 ( Pt 2)):1034-1036.
66.       Stellman SD, Garfinkel L. Cancer mortality among woodworkers. Am J Ind Med. 1984;5(5):343-357.
67.       Garfinkel L. Cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease in blacks: comparison to whites in a prospective study. Am Heart J. Sep 1984;108(3 Pt 2):802-807.
68.       Garfinkel L. Passive smoking and cancer--American experience. Prev Med. Nov 1984;13(6):691-697.
69.       Garfinkel L, Sarokhan B. Trends in brain cancer tumor mortality and morbidity in the United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982;381:1-5.
70.       Lee PN, Garfinkel L. Mortality and type of cigarette smoked. J Epidemiol Community Health. Mar 1981;35(1):16-22.
71.       Garfinkel L. Time trends in lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers and a note on passive smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst. Jun 1981;66(6):1061-1066.
72.       Phillips RL, Garfinkel L, Kuzma JW, Beeson WL, Lotz T, Brin B. Mortality among California Seventh-Day Adventists for selected cancer sites. J Natl Cancer Inst. Nov 1980;65(5):1097-1107.
73.       Hammond EC, Seidman H. Smoking and cancer in the United States. Prev Med. Mar 1980;9(2):169-174.
74.       Hammond EC, Garfinkel L. General air pollution and cancer in the United States. Prev Med. Mar 1980;9(2):206-211.
75.       Hammond E. The long-term benefits of reducing tar and nicotine in cigarettes. Banbury Report 3: A Safe Cigarette? New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 1980.
76.       Garfinkel L. The impact of low tar/nicotine cigarettes. World Smoking and Health 1980.
77.       Garfinkel L. Changes in number of cigarettes smoked compared to changes in tar and nicotine content over a 13-year period. Banbury Report 3: A Safe Cigarette? New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. 1980.
78.       Garfinkel L. Cancer mortality in nonsmokers: prospective study by the American Cancer Society. J Natl Cancer Inst. Nov 1980;65(5):1169-1173.
79.       Lew EG, L. . Cardiovascular mortality and cigarette smoking.  World Smoking and Health. . 1979;4:42-45.
80.       Lew EA, Garfinkel L. Variations in mortality by weight among 750,000 men and women. J Chronic Dis. 1979;32(8):563-576.
81.       Kripke DF, Simons RN, Garfinkel L, Hammond EC. Short and long sleep and sleeping pills. Is increased mortality associated? Arch Gen Psychiatry. Jan 1979;36(1):103-116.
82.       Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ, Seidman H. Asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking and death rates. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979;330:473-490.
83.       Garfinkel L. Changes in the cigarette consumption of smokers in relation to changes in tar/nicotine content of cigarettes smoked. Am J Public Health. Dec 1979;69(12):1274-1276.
84.       Enstrom JE. Cancer mortality among low-risk populations. CA Cancer J Clin. Nov-Dec 1979;29(6):352-361.
85.       Hammond EC, Garfinkel L, Lew EA. Longevity, selective mortality, and competitive risks in relation to chemical carcinogenesis. Environ Res. Jul 1978;16(1-3):153-173.
86.       Hammond EG, L. Seidman, H. Lew, EA. . Some Recent Findings Concerning Cigarette Smoking. Origins of Human Cancer. 1977:101-112.
87.       Hammond E. Smoking in relation to diseases other than cancer. Total death rates. Second World Conference on Smoking & Health. London. . 1977.
88.       Hammond EC, Garfinkel L, Seidman H, Lew EA. "Tar" and nicotine content of cigarette smoke in relation to death rates. Environ Res. Dec 1976;12(3):263-274.
89.       Garfinkel L. Methodology for determining beneficial effect of less harmful cigaretteson lung cancer risk. Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Smoking and Health. Vol I, Modifying the Risk of the Smoker, p. 119-124, DHEW pub No. 76-1221, US Dept HEW, 1976.
90.       Garfinkel L. Cigarette smoking among physicians and other health professionals, 1959-1972. CA Cancer J Clin. Nov-Dec 1976;26(6):373-375.
91.       Hammond EC, Garfinkel L. Aspirin and coronary heart disease: findings of a prospective study. Br Med J. May 3 1975;2(5965):269-271.
92.       Percy C, Garfinkel L, Krueger DE, Dolman AB. Apparent changes in cancer mortality, 1968. A study of the effects of the introduction of the Eighth Revision International Classification of Diseases. Public Health Rep. Sep-Oct 1974;89(5):418-428.
93.       Garfinkel L, Hammond EC. Letter: Breast cancer and hypertension. Lancet. Dec 7 1974;2(7893):1381.
94.       Hammond E. Smoking habits and air pollution in relation to lung cancer (Chapter 12). In: Environmental Factors in Respiratory Disease. New York: Academic Press.1972.
95.       Hammond EC, Garfinkel L, Seidman H. Longevity of parents and grandparents in relation to coronary heart disease and associated variables. Circulation. Jan 1971;43(1):31-44.
96.       Hammond E. A Multiple Factor Analysis of the Association Between Cigarette Smoking and Mortality. American Cancer Society. 1971.
97.       Hammond EC, Garfinkel L. Coronary heart disease, stroke, and aortic aneurysm. Arch Environ Health. Aug 1969;19(2):167-182.
98.       Hammond EC. Cancer prevention and competitive risks. Arch Environ Health. Sep 1969;19(3):395-402.
99.       Hammond EC. Life expectancy of American men in relation to their smoking habits. J Natl Cancer Inst. Oct 1969;43(4):951-962.
100.     Hammond E. Identification of High Risk Groups: Cancer of the Cervix. AmericanCancer Society. 1969.
101.     Hammond EC, Garfinkel L. Changes in cigarette smoking 1959-1965. Am J Public Health Nations Health. Jan 1968;58(1):30-45.
102.     Hammond EC, Burns EL, Seidman H, Percy C. Detection of uterine cancer. High and low risk groups. Cancer. Dec 1968;22(6):1096-1107.
103.     Hammond EC. Quantitative relationship between cigarette smoking and death rates. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. Jun 1968;28:3-8.
104.     Garfinkel L. The association between cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases. Bull N Y Acad Med. Dec 1968;44(12):1495-1501.
105.     Hammond EC, Selikoff IJ, Robitzek EH. Isoniazid therapy in relation to later occurrence of cancer in adults and in infants. Br Med J. Jun 24 1967;2(5555):792-795.
106.     Hammond EC, Johnson H, Percy C. Reporting of cancer of the lung, liver and uterus. Cancer. Oct 1967;20(10):1802-1806.
107.     Hammond EC. Prospects in cancer epidemiology, and a theory on carcinogenesis. Environ Res. Jun 1967;1(1):102-113.
108.     Hammond E. Epidemiological evidence on the effects of air pollution.   Air Pollution Control Association Annual Mtg. Paper. 1967.
109.     Garfinkel L. Changes in cigarette smoking habits among physicians, 1959-1965. CA Cancer J Clin. Jul-Aug 1967;17(4):193-195.
110.     Hammond EC, Garfinkel L. The influence of health on smoking habits. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. Jan 1966;19:269-285.
111.     Hammond EC. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. Jan 1966;19:127-204.
112.     Hammond EC, Van Griethuysen TH, Dibeler JB, Sneddon AM, Halligan W. Smoking habits and disease in New York State. N Y State J Med. Oct 15 1965;65(20):2557-2561.
113.     Hammond EC. Evidence on the Effects of Giving up Cigarette Smoking. Am J Public Health Nations Health. May 1965;55:682-691.
114.     Hammond EC, Garfinkel L. Changes in Cigarette Smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst. Jul 1964;33:49-64.
115.     Hammond EC. Some Preliminary Findings on Physical Complaints from a Prospective Study of 1,064,004 Men and Women. Am J Public Health Nations Health. Jan 1964;54:11-23.
116.     Hammond EC. Smoking in Relation to Mortality and Morbidity. Findings in First Thirty-Four Months of Follow-up in a Prospective Study Started in 1959. J Natl Cancer Inst. May 1964;32:1161-1188.
117.     Garfinkel L. Several studies show higher death rates for smokers than for non-smokers. NJ Department of Health: Public Health News Public Health News 1963(44):211-214.
118.     Hammond EC. The effects of smoking. Sci Am. Jul 1962;207:39-51.
119.     Hammond EC. Air pollution, smoking, and health. Tex State J Med. Aug 1962;58:639-647.
120.     Hammond EC, Garfinkel L. Smoking habits of men and women. J Natl Cancer Inst. Aug 1961;27:419-442.
121.     Hammond EC. Smoking in relation to physical complaints. Arch Environ Health. Aug 1961;3:146-164.
122.     Hammond E. Prospective studies on smoking in relation to death rate. Bull L’Institut Intl Stat 33rd Session, Paris. 1961:1-15.
123.     Hammond EC. Cancer etiology: new prospective epidemiological study. CA Cancer J Clin. Sep-Oct 1959;9:177-178.
124.     Seidman H. Age at exposure versus years of exposure. . Monogr Natl Cancer Inst. .67:205-209.
 
 
 
 
   
    PUBLICATIONS FROM THE HAMMOND HORN (NINE STATE) STUDY 

  

1.         Hammond EC, Horn D. The relationship between human smoking habits and death rates: a follow-up study of 187,766 men. J Am Med Assoc. Aug 7 1954;155(15):1316-1328.
2.         Hammond EC, Horn D. Smoking and death rates: report on forty-four months of follow-up of 187,783 men. 2. Death rates by cause. J Am Med Assoc. Mar 15 1958;166(11):1294-1308.
3.         Hammond EC, Horn D. Smoking and death rates; report on forty-four months of follow-up of 187,783 men. I. Total mortality. J Am Med Assoc. Mar 8 1958;166(10):1159-1172.
 

 

(Revised:  May 10, 2010)