+ -Text Size

Cancer Risk Factors and Screening

The Surveillance of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening program was created in 1992 to support a growing emphasis on cancer control. The program reports on trends in cancer risk factors and screening, along with Society recommendations, policy initiatives, and evidence-based programs, in Cancer Prevention & Early Detection Facts & Figures, published annually since 2000. In 2009, program researchers published updates on cancer screening in CA: A Journal for Clinicians. This group also contributes to the Research department’s regularly updated educational service publications provided by the Surveillance and Health Policy Research program, including Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans and Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics/Latinos.

Director: Vilma Cokkinides, PhD; vilma.cokkinides@cancer.org


2010 Highlights

Dr. Vilma Cokkinides collaborated with Dr. Robert Smith, Director – Cancer Screening, in the most recent update of cancer screening guidelines from the American Cancer Society published in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.

Dr. Cokkinides presented the Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics/Latinos 2009 to the National Hispanic Medical Association 14th Annual Conference.

Drs. Jemal and Cokkinides provide scientific expertise to other components of the American Cancer Society.

2009 Highlights

A study by Dr. Cokkinides found that state policies meant to limit minors’ indoor tanning use have had little effect, largely because they still permit minors access with parental consent and/or accompaniment. These findings were particularly timely because use of sunlamps and tanning beds was classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans in 2009. 

Cancer Risk Factors and Screening staff continue to provide data on tobacco prevalence and use of colorectal and breast cancer screening aggregated at the state, division, and national levels for the Society's division Scorecard Reports and the nationwide Dashboard Report. These reports assist ACS leadership in tracking key strategic metrics related to the nationwide leadership roles. 

Dr. Cokkinides collaborated with federal and non-federal partners to produce a surveillance monograph entitled Assessing the Burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers in the United States published in the journal Cancer in November 2008. This monograph included articles on each of the cancers that have been associated with HPV (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and head and neck) and highlights efforts to develop enhanced surveillance programs for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination.


Cokkinides VE, Bandi P, Shah M, Virgo KS, Ward EM. The association between state mandates of colorectal cancer screening coverage and colorectal cancer screening utilization among US adults aged 50 to 64 years with health insurance. BMC Health Services Research.11(1):19. 2011.

Bandi P, Cokkinides V, Weinstock M, Ward EM. Sunburns, sun protection and indoor tanning behaviors, and attitudes regarding sun protection benefits and tan appeal among parents of US adolescents – 1998 compared to 2004. Pediatric Dermatology. Jan 1;27(1):9-18. 2010.

Bandi P, Cokkinides V, Weinstock M, Ward EM. Physician sun protection counseling: Prevalence, correlates, and association with sun protection practices among US adolescents and their parents, 2004. Preventive Medicine. 51:172-177. 2010. Epub May 14 2010.

Cokkinides V, Bandi P, Weinstock M, Ward EM. Use of sunless tanning products among US adolescents. Archives of Dermatology. Sep;146(9):987-992. 2010.

Roche LM, Wu XC, Chen V, Hamilton-Byrd E, Groves FD, Jemal A, Martin HJ, McLaughlin CC.  Cutaneous melanoma incidence and survival among black, Asian and Pacific Islander, and white populations in the United States. Clinical Medicine Insights: Dermatology. 2010:3 1-10.

Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Brooks D, Saslow D, Andrews K, Brawley OW. Cancer screening in the United States, 2010, a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin. Mar-Apr;60(2):99-119. 2010.

Balamurugan A, Ahmed F, Saraiya M, et al. Potential role of human papillomavirus in the development of subsequent primary in situ and invasive cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Cancer. 2008;113(10 Suppl):2919-25.

Bernard VM, Johnson CJ, Thompson TD, et al. Examining the association between socioeconomic status and potential human-papillomavirus-associated cancers. Cancer. 2008;113(10 Suppl):2910-18.

Cokkinides VE, Bandi P, McMahon C, Jemal A, Glynn T, Ward EM. Tobacco control in the United States - recent progress and opportunities.CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59;352-365.

Cokkinides VE, Weinstock MA, Lazovich D, Ward EM, Thun MJ. Indoor tanning use among adolescents in the United States, 1998-2004. Cancer. 2009;115(1):190-98.

Smith RA, Cokkinides VE, Weinstock M, Lazovich D, Ward EM, Thun MJ. Cancer screening in the United States, 2009: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59(1):27-41.

Tiro JA, Saraiya M, Jain N, et al. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer behavioral surveillance in the U.S. Cancer. 2008;113:3013-30.

Watson M, Saraiya M, Benard V, et al. Burden of cervical cancer in the United States, 1998-2003. Cancer. 2008;113 (10 Suppl): 2855-64.