surgery to remove all or part of the breast and sometimes other tissue. Some of the more common types of mastectomies are listed below.
Modified radical mastectomy removes the breast, skin, nipple, areola, and most of the axillary lymph nodes on the same side, leaving the chest muscles intact.
Partial or segmental mastectomy removes only the part of the breast that has the cancer and a margin of healthy breast tissue surrounding the tumor. It is also called breast-conserving surgery or lumpectomy.
Prophylactic mastectomy is a mastectomy done before any evidence of cancer can be found, for the purpose of preventing cancer.
Quadrantectomy (quad-runt-EK-tuh-me) is a partial mastectomy in which the quarter of the breast that has a tumor is removed.
Radical mastectomy removes the breast, skin, nipple, areola, both pectoral muscles, and all axillary lymph nodes on the same side.
Simple mastectomy or total mastectomy removes only the breast, skin, nipple, and areola.
Skin-sparing mastectomy leaves as much of the breast skin as possible (but removes the nipple and areola) to improve the way the reconstructed breast looks.
See also axillary dissection, lymph node, sentinel node biopsy.