References

Bickmore TW, Pfeifer LM, Paasche-Orlow MK. Using computer agents to explain medical documents to patients with low health literacy. Patient Educ Couns. 2009;75:315-320.

Breitsameter C. Medical decision-making and communication of risks: an ethical perspective. J Med Ethics. 2010;36(6):349-352.

Derse AR. What part of “no” don’t you understand? Patient refusal of recommended treatment in the emergency department. Mt Sinai J Med. 2005;72:221-227.

Emedicine Health. Informed Consent. Accessed at www.emedicinehealth.com/informed_consent/article_em.htm on July 9, 2014.

Lee MK, Noh DY, Nam SJ, et al. Association of shared decision-making with type of breast cancer surgery: a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10:48.

National Cancer Institute. A Guide to Understanding Informed Consent. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/conducting/informed-consent-guide/page1 on July 25, 2012.

Pope TM, Hexum M. Legal Briefing: Informed Consent in the Clinical Context. J Clin Ethics. 2014;25(2):152-175.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Informed Consent – FAQs. Accessed at http://answers.hhs.gov/ohrp/categories/1566 on July 10, 2014.

White G. Obtaining informed consent: It’s more than a signature. Am J Nursing. 2000;100:83.

Whitney SN, McGuire AL, McCullough LB. A typology of shared decision making, informed consent, and simple consent. Ann Intern Med. 2003;140:54-59.

The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team
Our team is made up of doctors and master’s-prepared nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

Last Medical Review: May 20, 2016 Last Revised: July 28, 2014

American Cancer Society medical information is copyrighted material. For reprint requests, please contact permissionrequest@cancer.org.