Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

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References

Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr, et al. 2011 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 29th Annual Report. Clinical Toxicology 2010; 48:979-1178. Accessed at https://aapcc.s3.amazonaws.com/pdfs/annual_reports/2011_NPDS_Annual_Report.pdf on November 19, 2013.

Kurtzweil P. An FDA Guide to Dietary Supplements. FDA Consumer; January 1999. Accessed at www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fdsupp.html on May 29, 2009 (content no longer available).

Newmaster SG, Grguric M, Shanmughanandhan D, et al. DNA barcoding detects contamination and substitution in North American herbal products BMC Medicine. 2013;11:222. Accessed at www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/222 on November 19, 2013.

Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Making Decisions. Accessed at http://ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInformation/ on November 20, 2013.

Singh P, Yadav RJ, Pandey A. Utilization of indigenous systems of medicine & homoeopathy in India. Indian J Med Res. 2005;122(2):137-142.

US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Dietary Supplement Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) and Interim Final Rule (IFR) Facts. June 22, 2007. Accessed at www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/cgmp/ucm110858.htm on November 20, 2013.

US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. Accessed at www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Legislation/FederalFoodDrugandCosmeticActFDCAct/SignificantAmendmentstotheFDCAct/ucm148003.htm on November 20, 2013.

US Food and Drug Administration. Dietary Supplement Labeling Guide: Chapter VI. Claims, April 2005. Guidance for Industry. Accessed at www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation/dietarysupplements/ucm070613.htm on November 20, 2013.

US Food and Drug Administration. Dietary Supplements. Overview. Accessed at www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/ConsumerInformation/ucm110417.htm#what on September 2, 2011 (content no longer available).

US Food and Drug Administration. DMAA in Dietary Supplements. July 16, 2013. Accessed at www.fda.gov/food/dietarysupplements/qadietarysupplements/ucm346576.htm on November 20, 2013.

US Food and Drug Administration, FDA 101: Dietary Supplements (online brochure, updated 9/2/11). Accessed at www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm050803.htm on November 20, 2013.

US Food and Drug Administration. Number of mandatory adverse events reports from the dietary supplement industry entered into CAERS each month. Fiscal Year 2012. Accessed at www.accessdata.fda.gov/FDATrack/track?program=cfsan&id=CFSAN-OFDCER-Number-of-mandatory-adverse-event-reports-from-dietary-supplement-industry-entered-into-CAERS&fy=2012 on November 20, 2013.

US Food and Drug Administration. Beware of Fraudulent Dietary Supplements, 11/4/13. Accessed at www.fda.gov/forconsumers/consumerupdates/ucm246744.htm on November 20, 2013.

US Pharmacopeial Convention. USP Verified Dietary Supplements. Accessed at http://www.usp.org/usp-verification-services/usp-verified-dietary-supplements on June 2, 2014.

Whitmore A., USFDA. Personal communication, November 22, 2013.


Last Medical Review: 11/22/2013
Last Revised: 06/02/2014