- Who can get cancer?
- Consider the source
- Consider the science
- Types of human studies on cancer risk
- Studies that observe humans
- Human testing: Clinical trials
- A closer look at the evidence
- Other questions about studies on new ways to prevent cancer
- What does this mean to you?
- To learn more
- Appendix A
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2012. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2012.
Barnett ML, Hyman JJ. Challenges in interpreting study results: The conflict between appearance and reality. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137,Suppl 2,32S-36S.
Gotay CC, Dumitriu D. Health food store recommendations for breast cancer patients. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:692-699.
Hoffer, LJ. Complementary or alternative medicine: the need for plausibility. Canadian Med Assoc J. 2003;168(2).
Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:30-67.
Mills E, Ernst E, Singh R, Ross C, Wilson K. Health food store recommendations: implications for breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res. 2003;5(6):R170-174.
National Cancer Institute. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ®). Accessed at www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/overview/HealthProfessional on August 24, 2012.
National Cancer Institute. Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/conducting/dsm-guidelines/allpages on August 24, 2012.
National Cancer Institute. Taking part in clinical trials: Cancer prevention studies. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/resources/taking-part-prevention-trials on March 11, 2008. Content no longer available.
Simon SD. Statistical evidence in medical trials: What do the data really tell us? 2006. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stampfer MJ, Skerrett PJ. Health for Life: Whom Can You Believe? 2006. Newsweek, Jan 16.
US District Attorney’s Office, South District of Florida, Press Release. Arthur Vanmoor charged in superseding indictment for selling fake cancer cure, 2007. Accessed at www.usdoj.gov/usao/fls/PressReleases/070827-01.html on August 30, 2010. Content no longer available.
US Food and Drug Administration. Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts. Accessed at www.fda.gov/Safety/Recalls/default.htm on August 24, 2012.
Weed DL, Gorelic LS. The practice of causal inference in cancer epidemiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996;5:303-311.
Last Medical Review: 09/04/2012
Last Revised: 09/04/2012