- What is metastasis?
- What are the key statistics about bone metastases?
- What are the risk factors for bone metastases?
- Do we know why cancers metastasize to bones?
- Can bone metastases be prevented?
- Signs and symptoms of bone metastases
- How are bone metastases diagnosed?
- How are bone metastases treated?
- Systemic treatments for bone metastases
- Local treatments for bone metastases
- Pain medicines for bone metastases
- Clinical trials for bone metastases
- Complementary and alternative therapies for bone metastases
- Treating problems caused by bone metastases
- More treatment information about bone metastases
- What should you ask your doctor about bone metastases?
- Other things to consider
- Additional resources for bone metastases
- References: Bone Metastases
Signs and symptoms of bone metastases
Sometimes bone metastases are found in people without symptoms when tests are done to look for cancer spread.
Many of the symptoms mentioned here can also be caused by something other than the spread of cancer to the bones. Still, it’s very important for you to tell your doctors and nurses about any new symptoms such as these. Finding and treating bone metastasis early can help prevent problems later on.
Bone pain is often the first symptom of cancer that has spread to the bone. The pain often comes and goes at first. It tends to be worse at night and may be relieved by movement. Later on, it can become constant and may be worse during activity.
It’s important to tell your doctor right away about any new pain that might be coming from a bone. The bone might be so weakened that it will break. This can often be prevented if the bone metastasis is found early. Your doctor will want to x-ray the painful area and may use other imaging tests to look for changes. Other diseases, such as bone infections, arthritis, or just being very active can also make bones hurt.
Bones weakened from metastatic cancer may break (fracture). The fracture can happen with a fall or injury, but a weak bone can also break during everyday activities. These fractures often cause sudden, severe pain. The pain may keep you from moving much at all. In some cases, a fracture is the first sign of bone metastasis.
The most common sites of fractures are the long bones of the arms and legs and the bones of the spine. Sudden pain in the middle of the back, for example, is a common symptom of a bone in the spine breaking and collapsing from cancer.
Spinal cord compression
Cancer growth in the bones of the spine can press on the spinal cord. This is called spinal cord compression and is very serious. The spinal cord has nerves that allow you to move and feel what happens to your body. Some of these nerves also control other functions such as bowel and bladder control.
One of the very earliest symptoms is pain in the back or neck. Pressure on the spinal cord can damage the nerves in the spinal cord, leading to symptoms like numbness and weakness in the area of the body below the tumor. If it isn’t treated, the person can become paralyzed. Most often this affects the legs (so that the person can’t walk) but if the tumor is pressing on the spinal cord in the neck, both the arms and the legs can be affected. Sometimes the first symptom you may have of spinal cord pressure is trouble urinating because nerves from the spinal cord control the bladder. You may also feel more constipated (because nerves from the spine help you move your bowels).
Spinal cord compression is an emergency that must be treated right away to prevent permanent damage to the spinal cord and paralysis.
High blood calcium levels
When cancer spreads to the bones, calcium from the bones can be released into the bloodstream. This can lead to high levels of calcium in the blood (called hypercalcemia), which can cause problems such as constipation, nausea, loss of appetite, and extreme thirst. The high calcium causes you to make more urine, leading to dehydration. It can also make you feel very tired and weak. You may be sleepy or even confused. If hypercalcemia is not treated, you can even go into a coma.
Last Medical Review: 02/07/2014
Last Revised: 02/17/2014