- What is a mammogram?
- What’s the difference between a screening mammogram and a diagnostic mammogram?
- How is a mammogram done?
- What to expect when you have a screening mammogram
- Where can I get help with mammogram costs?
- How is mammography regulated?
- Radiation exposure from mammography
- What does the doctor look for on a mammogram?
- Getting called back after a mammogram
- Understanding your mammogram report – BI-RADS categories
- What are the limitations of mammograms?
- Mammograms after breast cancer
- Mammograms in special circumstances
- Breast MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
- Breast ultrasound
- Other breast imaging methods
- To learn more
American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2013-2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2013.
American College of Radiology. BI-RADS ATLAS – Mammography. Reporting System, 2013. Accessed at www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/PDF/QualitySafety/Resources/BIRADS/01%20Mammography/02%20%20BIRADS%20Mammography%20Reporting.pdf on June 9, 2014.
American College of Radiology - Radiology Society of North America. Patient Safety: Radiation Exposure in X-ray and CT Examinations. Accessed at www.radiologyinfo.org/en/safety/index.cfm?pg=sfty_xray on December 2, 2013.
Baker L. Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project: Five year summary report. CA Cancer J Clin. 1982;32:196-229.
Beahrs OH, et al. Report of the working group to review the NCI-ACS Breast Cancer Demonstration Project. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1979;62:639-698.
Brown SL, Silverman BG, Berg WA. Rupture of silicone-gel breast implants: causes, sequelae, and diagnosis. Lancet. 1997;350:1531-1537.
Bruening W, Uhl S, Fontanarosa J, Reston J, Treadwell J, Schoelles K. Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Breast Abnormalities: Update of a 2006 Review [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012 Feb. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK84530/
Caldarella C, Treglia G, Giordano A. Diagnostic performance of dedicated positron emission mammography using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose in women with suspicious breast lesions: a meta-analysis. Clin Breast Cancer. 2014 Aug;14(4):241-8. Epub 2013 Dec 27.
Fenton JJ, Taplin SH, Carney PA, et al. Influence of computer-aided detection on performance of screening mammography. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1399-1409.
Fitzgerald A, Berentson-Shaw J, New Zealand Guidelines Group. Thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool: a systematic review. N Z Med J. 2012;125(1351):80-91.
Freeman MT. Imaging: New techniques. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010:171-192.
Helvie MA. Imaging analysis: Mammography. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010:116-130.
Hortobagyi GN, Esserman L, Buchholz TA. Neoplasms of the Breast. In: Hong WK, Bast RC, Hait WN, et al, eds. Cancer Medicine. 8th ed. Shelton CT: People’s Medical Publishing House – USA/BC Decker; 2010:1393-1459.
Hubbard RA, Kerlikowske K, Flowers CI, et al. Cumulative probability of false-positive recall or biopsy recommendation after 10 years of screening mammography: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:481-492.
Kontos M, Wilson R, Fentiman I. Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) of breast lesions: sensitivity and specificity of detection of primary breast cancers. Clin Radiol. 2011;66(6):536-539.
Osteen RT. Breast cancer. In: Lenhard RE, Osteen RT, Gansler T, eds. Clinical Oncology. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2001:251-268.
Pisano ED, Gatsonis C, Hendrick E, et al. Diagnostic performance of digital versus film mammography for breast-cancer screening. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1773-1783.
Povyakalo AA, Alberdi E, Strigini L, Ayton P. How to discriminate between computer-aided and computer-hindered decisions: a case study in mammography. Med Decis Making. 2013 Jan;33(1):98-107.
Puliti D, Duffey SW, Miccinesi G, et al. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe: a literature review. J Med Screen, 2012;19:Suppl 1:42-56.
Rhodes DJ, Hruska CB, Phillips SW, Whaley DH, O'Connor MK. Dedicated dual-head gamma imaging for breast cancer screening in women with mammographically dense breasts. Radiology. 2011 Jan;258(1):106-18. Epub 2010 Nov 2.
Rose SL, Tidwell AL, Bujnoch LJ, et al. Implementation of breast tomosynthesis in a routine screening practice: an observational study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013 Jun;200(6):1401-1408.
Rosenberg RD, Hunt WC, Williamson MR, et al. Effects of age, breast density, ethnicity, and estrogen replacement therapy on screening mammographic sensitivity and cancer stage at diagnosis: Review of 183,134 screening mammograms in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Radiology 1998; 209:511–518.
Rosenberg RD, Yankaskas BC, Abraham LA, et al. Performance benchmarks for screening mammography. Radiology. 2006 Oct;241(1):55-66.
Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, et al for the American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Advisory Group. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57:75-79.
Skaane P, Bandos AI, Gullien R, et al. Comparison of digital mammography alone and digital mammography plus tomosynthesis in a population-based screening program. Radiology. 2013 Apr;267(1):47-56.
Smith RA, D’Orsi C, Newell MS. Screening for breast cancer. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, eds. Diseases of the Breast. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010:87-115.
Smith RA, Saslow D, Sawyer KA, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast cancer screening: update 2003. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003;53:141-169.
Tabar L, Vitak B, Tony HH, et al. Beyond randomized controlled trials: organized mammographic screening substantially reduces breast carcinoma mortality. Cancer. 2001;91:1724-1731.
The Radiology Assistant. BI-RADS. Introduction to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, by Harmien Zonderland. Accessed at www.radiologyassistant.nl/en/4349108442109 on December 2, 2013.
Weigert JM, Bertrand ML, Lanzkowsky L, Stern LH, Kieper DA. Results of a multicenter patient registry to determine the clinical impact of breast-specific gamma imaging, a molecular breast imaging technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012 Jan;198(1):W69-75.
Last Medical Review: 12/08/2014
Last Revised: 06/10/2015