References

American Cancer Society Cancer Information Database. Breast Cancer. Accessed at www.cancer.org/content/cancer/en/cancer/breast-cancer.html/DetailedGuide/index on 4/21/14.

American Cancer Society Cancer Information Database. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST). Accessed at www.cancer.org/Cancer/GastrointestinalStromalTumorGIST/DetailedGuide/index on 4/21/14.

American Cancer Society Cancer Information Database. Leukemia – Acute Myeloid (Myelogenous). Accessed at

American Cancer Society Cancer Information Database. Leukemia – Chronic Myeloid (Myelogenous). Accessed at www.cancer.org/Cancer/Leukemia-ChronicMyeloidCML/DetailedGuide/index on 4/21/14.

American Cancer Society Cancer Information Database. Stomach Cancer. Accessed at www.cancer.org/cancer/stomach-cancer/DetailedGuide/index on 12/13/2011.

Bahcall O. Common variation and heritability estimates for breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. Nature Genetics. Accessed at http://www.nature.com/icogs/primer/common-variation-and-heritability-estimates-for-breast-ovarian-and-prostate-cancers/ on May 30, 2013.

Berger AH, Pandolfi PP. Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes. In: DeVita VT, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 8th ed. 2011; 161–172.

Fearon ER, Bommer GT. Progressing from Gene Mutations to Cancer. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Lichter AS, Niederhuber JE. Kastan MB, McKenna WG. Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier: 2008: 207-222.

Fong PC, Boss DS, Yap TA, et al. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in tumors from BRCA mutation carriers. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 9;361(2):123-34.

National Cancer Institute. Physician Data Query (PDQ). Cancer Genetics Overview. 2/18/2014. Accessed at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/genetics/overview/healthprofessional on 3/7/2014.

National Cancer Institute. Understanding Cancer: Genetic Variation (SNPs). 9/1/2006. Accessed at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/geneticvariation on 3/20/2014.

National Cancer Institute. Understanding Gene Testing. Accessed at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/genetesting on 3/20/2014.

Ringer DP, Schniper LE. Principles of Cancer Biology. In: Lenhard RE, Osteen RT, Gansler T, eds. Clinical Oncology. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2001: 25–30.

Simmons, D. (2008) Epigenetic influence and disease. Nature Education 1(1):6. Accessed at http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/epigenetic-influences-and-disease-895 on June 18, 2014.

Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology. The somatic mutation theory of cancer: growing problems with the paradigm? Bioessays. 2004; 26:1097–1107.

The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

Last Medical Review: June 25, 2014 Last Revised: June 25, 2014