What is acrylamide?
Acrylamide is a chemical used mainly in certain industrial processes, such as in producing paper, dyes, and plastics, and in treating drinking water and wastewater. It is found in small amounts in some consumer products, such as caulk, food packaging, and some adhesives. Acrylamide is also found in cigarette smoke.
Acrylamide can also form in some starchy foods during high-temperature cooking processes, such as frying, roasting, and baking. Acrylamide forms from sugars and an amino acid that are naturally present in food; it does not come from food packaging or the environment.
How are people exposed to acrylamide?
In certain foods
Swedish scientists first discovered that acrylamide can be found in certain foods in 2002.
Acrylamide does not appear to be present in raw foods themselves. It is formed when certain starchy foods are cooked at temperatures above about 250° F. Cooking methods such as frying, baking, broiling, or roasting are more likely to produce acrylamide, while boiling, steaming, and microwaving appear less likely to do so. Cooking at high temperatures causes a chemical reaction between certain sugars and an amino acid (asparagine) in the food, which causes acrylamide to form. Longer cooking times and cooking at higher temperatures can increase the amount of acrylamide in foods further.
Acrylamide is found mainly in foods made from plants, such as potato products, grain products, or coffee. Foods such as French fries and potato chips seem to have the highest levels of acrylamide, but it is also found in breads and other grain products. Acrylamide does not form (or forms at lower levels) in dairy, meat, and fish products.
In cigarette smoke
Acrylamide is also found in cigarette smoke. This is probably one of the major routes of exposure for smokers.
On the job
Workers in certain industries (particularly in the paper and pulp, construction, foundry, oil drilling, textiles, cosmetics, food processing, plastics, mining, and agricultural industries) may be exposed to acrylamide while at work. Regulations limit exposure in these settings.
Does acrylamide increase the risk of cancer?
It is not yet clear if acrylamide has an effect on cancer risk in people.
Studies done in the lab
Acrylamide has been found to pose a risk for several types of cancer when given to lab animals (rats and mice) in their drinking water. The doses of acrylamide given in these studies were as much as 1,000 to 10,000 times higher than the levels people might be exposed to in foods. It is hard to know if these results would apply to people as well, but it is wise to minimize human exposure to substances that cause cancer in animals.
Studies in people
Since acrylamide was first found in certain foods in 2002, dozens of studies have looked at whether people who eat more of these foods might be at higher risk for certain cancers.
Most of these studies have not found any increased risk of cancer in humans. For some types of cancer, such as kidney cancer and ovarian cancer, the results have been mixed, but there are currently no cancer types for which there is clearly an increased risk related to acrylamide intake.
The studies that have been done so far have had some important limitations. For example, many of the studies relied on food questionnaires that people filled out every couple of years. These questionnaires may not have accounted for all dietary sources of acrylamide. In addition, people may not accurately remember what they have eaten when asked in personal interviews or through questionnaires.
While the evidence from human studies so far is somewhat reassuring, more studies are needed to determine if acrylamide raises cancer risk in people. The American Cancer Society supports the call by federal and international agencies for continued evaluation of how acrylamide is formed, its health risks, and how its presence in food can be reduced or removed.
What expert agencies say
Several agencies (national and international) study different substances in the environment to determine if they can cause cancer. (A substance that causes cancer or helps cancer grow is called a carcinogen.) The American Cancer Society looks to these organizations to evaluate the risks based on evidence from laboratory, animal, and human research studies.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization (WHO). Its major goal is to identify causes of cancer. Based on the data from lab animals, IARC classifies acrylamide as a "probable human carcinogen".
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) is formed from parts of several different US government agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The NTP has classified acrylamide as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" based on the studies in lab animals.
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maintains the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), an electronic database that contains information on human health effects from exposure to various substances in the environment. The EPA classifies acrylamide as a "probable human carcinogen" based on studies in lab animals.
(For more information on the classification systems used by these agencies, see our document, Known and Probable Human Carcinogens.)
Since the discovery of acrylamide in foods, the American Cancer Society, the FDA, and many other organizations have recognized the need for further research on this topic. Ongoing studies will continue to provide new information on whether acrylamide levels in foods are linked to increased cancer risk.
Are there any other possible health effects of acrylamide?
Exposure to high levels of acrylamide in the workplace has been shown to cause nerve damage, which can lead to numbness or weakness in the arms or legs, bladder problems, and other symptoms.
Are acrylamide levels regulated?
In the United States, the FDA regulates the amount of residual acrylamide in a variety of materials that come in contact with food, but there are currently no guidelines on the presence of acrylamide in food itself.
The EPA regulates acrylamide in drinking water. The EPA established an acceptable level of acrylamide exposure, set low enough to account for any uncertainty in the data relating acrylamide to cancer and effects on nerves.
Can I lower my exposure to acrylamide?
For most people, the major potential sources of acrylamide exposure are in certain foods and in cigarette smoke. It is not yet clear if the levels of acrylamide in foods raise cancer risk, but for people who are concerned there are some things you can do to lower your exposure.
Certain foods are more likely to contain acrylamide than others. This includes potato products (especially French fries and potato chips), coffee, and foods made from grains (such as breakfast cereal, cookies, and toast). These foods are often part of a regular diet. But if you want to lower acrylamide intake, reducing your intake of these foods is one way to do so.
The FDA's advice on acrylamide is to adopt a healthy eating plan, consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, that:
- Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products.
- Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts.
- Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars.
This type of diet is likely to have health benefits beyond lowering acrylamide levels.
Acrylamide has been detected in both home-cooked and in packaged or processed foods. Acrylamide levels in food can vary widely depending on the manufacturer, the cooking time, and the method and temperature of the cooking process. Since acrylamide is formed from natural chemicals in food during cooking, acrylamide levels in cooked organic foods are likely to be similar to levels in cooked non-organic foods.
When cooking at home, some methods may lower the acrylamide levels produced in certain foods.
For potatoes, frying causes the highest acrylamide formation. Roasting potato pieces causes less acrylamide formation, followed by baking whole potatoes. Boiling potatoes and microwaving whole potatoes with skin on does not produce acrylamide.
Soaking raw potato slices in water for 15 to 30 minutes before frying or roasting helps reduce acrylamide formation during cooking. (Soaked potatoes should be drained and blotted dry before cooking to prevent splattering or fires.)
Storing potatoes in the refrigerator can result in increased acrylamide during cooking. Therefore, store potatoes outside the refrigerator, preferably in a dark, cool place, such as a closet or a pantry, to prevent sprouting.
Generally, acrylamide levels rise when cooking is done for longer periods or at higher temperatures. Cooking cut potato products, such as frozen French fries or potato slices, to a golden yellow color rather than a brown color helps reduce acrylamide formation. Brown areas tend to contain more acrylamide.
Toasting bread to a light brown color, rather than a dark brown color, lowers the amount of acrylamide. Very brown areas contain the most acrylamide.
Acrylamide forms in coffee when coffee beans are roasted, not when coffee is brewed at home or in a restaurant. So far, scientists have not found good ways to reduce acrylamide formation in coffee.
Not smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke are other ways to potentially reduce your exposure to acrylamide, as well as to many other potentially harmful chemicals.
More information from your American Cancer Society
The following related information may also be helpful to you. These materials may be viewed on our web site or ordered from our toll-free number, at 1-800-227-2345.
National organizations and Web sites*
In addition to the American Cancer Society, other sources of information include:
Food and Drug Administration
Web site: www.fda.gov
Acrylamide Questions and Answers: www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodContaminantsAdulteration/ChemicalContaminants/Acrylamide/ucm053569
National Cancer Institute
Web site: www.cancer.gov
Acrylamide in Food and Cancer Risk: www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/risk/acrylamide-in-food
World Health Organization
Web site: www.who.int/en/
Frequently Asked Questions - Acrylamide in Food: www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/chem/acrylamide_faqs/en/index.html
No matter who you are, we can help. Contact us anytime, day or night, for information and support. Call us at 1-800-227-2345 or visit www.cancer.org.
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Last Revised: 11/05/2010