Atkins MB. UpToDate. Clinical manifestations, evaluation, and staging of renal cell carcinoma; This topic last updated: Nov 13, 2018. Accessed at https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-evaluation-and-staging-of-renal-cell-carcinoma on November 21, 2019.
National Cancer Institute. Physician Data Query (PDQ). Renal Cell Cancer Treatment – Patient Version. 2019. https://www.cancer.gov/types/kidney/patient/kidney-treatment pdq. Updated November 8, 2019. Accessed on November 21, 2019.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Kidney Cancer. V.2.2020. Accessed at: www.nccn.org on November 21, 2019.