References: Adrenal Cancer

American Joint Committee on Cancer. Adrenal. In: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer. 2010:515–517.

Berruti A, Fassnacht M, Baudin E, et al. Adjuvant therapy in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma: a position of an international panel. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(23):e401-402; author reply e403. Epub 2010 Jun 21.

Bilimoria KY, Shen WT, Elaraj D, et al. Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer. 2008;113:3130-3136.

Bovio S, Cataldi A, Reimondo G, et al. Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006;29:298-302.

Else T, Williams AR, Sabolch A, et al. Adjuvant Therapies, Patient and Tumor Characteristics Associated with Survival of Adult Patients with Adrenocortical Carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Dec 3. [Epub ahead of print]

Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Polat B, et al. Efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy of the tumor bed on local recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:4501-4504.

Fassnacht M, Johanssen S, Quinkler M, et al; German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group; European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors. Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification. Cancer. 2009;115:243-250.

Fassnacht M, Terzolo M, Allolio B, et al. Combination chemotherapy in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(23):2189-2197. Epub 2012 May 2.

Groussin L, Bonardel G, Silvéra S, et al. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumors: a prospective study in 77 operated patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(5):1713-1722. Epub 2009 Feb 3.

Kitano M, Patterson E, Kebebew E. Adrenal Tumors In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2011: 1480-1488.

Lal G, O'Dorisio T, Mc Dougall R, Weigel RJ. Cancer of the endocrine system In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Lichter AS, Niederhuber JE, Kastan MB, McKenna WG. Clinical Oncology. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier: 2008: 1271-303

Naing A, Lorusso P, Fu S, et al. Insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) antibody cixutumumab combined with the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus in patients with metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2013;108(4):826-830. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

NIH state-of-the-science statement on management of the clinically inapparent adrenal mass ("incidentaloma"). NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 2002;19:1-25.

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD) and National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine (Bethesda, MD), 3/3/2010. Available at

PDQ database. Adrenocortical Cancer. 11/15/2012. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, Md. Accessed at on November 13, 2013.

Raymond VM, Everett JN, Furtado LV, et al. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(24):3012-3018. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Zambetti GP, Ribeiro RC. Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005;45(3):265-273.

Roman S. Adrenocortical carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol. 2006;18:36-42.

Ronckers CM, McCarron P, Engels EA, Ron E. New Malignancies Following Cancer of the Thyroid and Other Endocrine Glands. In: Curtis RE, Freedman DM, Ron E, Ries LAG, Hacker DG, Edwards BK, Tucker MA, Fraumeni JF Jr. (eds). New Malignancies Among Cancer Survivors: SEER Cancer Registries, 1973-2000. National Cancer Institute. NIH Publ. No. 05-5302. Bethesda, MD, 2006. Accessed on 4/18/2014 at

Schulick RD, Brennan MF. Long-term survival after complete resection and repeat resection in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999;6:719-726.

Song JH, Chaudhry FS, Mayo-Smith WW. The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190:1163-1168.

Stojadinovic A, Ghossein RA, Hoos A, et al. Adrenocortical carcinoma: Clinical, morphologic and molecular characterization. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:941-950.

Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, et al. Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: How much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy. J Am Coll Surg. 2005:423-430.

Terzolo M, Angeli A, Fassnacht M, et al. Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2372-2380.

Vassilopoulou-Sellin, Schultz PN. Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Clinical outcome at the end of the 20th century. Cancer. 2001:92:1113-1121.

Veytsman I, Nieman L, Fojo T. Management of endocrine manifestations and the use of mitotane as a chemotherapeutic agent for adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(27):4619-4629.

Young JA Jr, Ward KC, Ries LAG. Cancers of Rare Sites. In, Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner M-J (editors). SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, NIH Pub. No. 07-6215, Bethesda, MD, 2007.