References: Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2016. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2016.

American Cancer Society. Colorectal Cancer Facts & Figures 2014-2016. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2014.

American Cancer Society. Detailed Guide: Colon and Rectum Cancer. 2016. Accessed at

Aune D, Chan DS, Lau R, et al. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ. 2011;343:d6617.

Frazier AL, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS, Kuntz KM. Cost-effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer in the general population. JAMA. 2000;284:1954-1961.

Hawk ET, Levin B. Colorectal cancer prevention. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:378-388.

Hendriks YM, deJong AE, Morreau H, et al. Diagnostic approach and management of Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma): A guide for clinicians. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006;56:213-225.

Kelloff GJ, Schilsky RL, Alberts DS, et al. Colorectal adenomas: A prototype for the use of surrogate end points in the development of cancer prevention drugs. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:3908-3918.

Kushi LH, Doyle C, McCullough M, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62:30-67.

Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland, et al. Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: A joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008;58:130-160.

National Cancer Institute. Physician Data Query (PDQ). Colorectal Cancer Screening. 2015. Accessed at on October 7, 2015.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal. V.1.2015. Accessed at on October 5, 2015. Your Medicare Coverage: Colorectal Cancer Screening. Accessed at on October 7, 2015.

Rex DK, Kaho CJ, Levin B, et al. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after cancer resection: A consensus update by the American Cancer Society and US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006;56:160-167.

Winawer, SJ, Zauber AG, Fletcher RH, et al. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy: A consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer and the American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006;56:143-159.

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Our team is made up of doctors and master’s-prepared nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

Last Medical Review: January 27, 2016 Last Revised: June 24, 2016

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