Hodgkin Lymphoma Stages
The stage of a cancer is the extent of the disease at the time of diagnosis. The treatment and prognosis (outlook) for a person with Hodgkin lymphoma depend to some extent on both the type and the stage of the disease. If you have any questions about the stage of your lymphoma or how it affects your treatment, be sure to ask your doctor.
Hodgkin lymphoma generally starts in the lymph nodes. If it spreads, it is usually to another set of nearby lymph nodes. It can invade (grow into) nearby organs as well. Rarely, Hodgkin lymphoma will start in an organ other than lymph nodes, such as a lung.
The stage is based on:
- Your medical history (if you have certain symptoms)
- The physical exam
- Imaging tests, which typically include a chest x-ray, CT (computed tomography) scan of the chest/abdomen/pelvis, and PET (positron emission tomography) scan
- Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy (sometimes but not always done)
- These exams, tests, and biopsies are discussed in Tests for Hodgkin Lymphoma.
In general, the results of imaging tests such as PET and CT scans are the most important when determining the stage of the lymphoma.
A staging system is a way for the cancer care team to sum up the extent of a cancer’s spread. The staging system for Hodgkin lymphoma is the Lugano classification, which is based on the older Ann Arbor system. It has 4 stages, labeled I, II, III, and IV.
For limited stage (I or II) Hodgkin lymphoma that affects an organ outside of the lymph system, the letter E is added to the stage (for example, stage IE or IIE).
Stage I: Either of the following means that the lymphoma is stage I:
- Hodgkin lymphoma is found in only 1 lymph node area or lymphoid organ such as the thymus (I).
- The cancer is found only in 1 area of a single organ outside the lymph system (IE).
Stage II: Either of the following means that the lymphoma is stage II:
- Hodgkin lymphoma is found in 2 or more lymph node areas on the same side of (above or below) the diaphragm, which is the thin muscle beneath the lungs that separates the chest and abdomen (II).
- The cancer extends locally from one lymph node area into a nearby organ (IIE).
Stage III: Either of the following means that the lymphoma is stage III:
- Hodgkin lymphoma is found in lymph node areas on both sides of (above and below) the diaphragm (III).
- Hodgkin lymphoma is in lymph nodes above the diaphragm, as well as in the spleen.
Stage IV: Hodgkin lymphoma has spread widely into at least one organ outside of the lymph system, such as the liver, bone marrow, or lungs.
Other modifiers may also be used to describe the Hodgkin lymphoma stage:
This term is used to describe tumors in the chest that are at least ⅓ as wide as the chest, or tumors in other areas that are at least 10 centimeters (about 4 inches) across. It is usually labeled by adding the letter X to the stage. It is especially important for stage II lymphomas, as bulky disease may require more intensive treatment.
A vs. B
Each stage may also be assigned a letter (A or B). B is added (stage IIIB, for example) if a person has any of these B symptoms:
- Loss of more than 10% of body weight over the previous 6 months (without dieting)
- Unexplained fever of at least 100.4°F (38°C)
- Drenching night sweats
If a person has any B symptoms, it usually means the lymphoma is more advanced, and more intensive treatment is often recommended. If no B symptoms are present, the letter A is added to the stage.
Resistant or recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma
Resistant or recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma is not part of the formal staging system, but doctors or nurses might use these terms to describe what is going on with the lymphoma in some cases.
- The terms resistant or progressive disease are used when the lymphoma does not go away or progresses (grows) while you are still being treated.
- Recurrent or relapsed disease means that Hodgkin lymphoma initially went away with treatment, but it has now come back. If the lymphoma returns, it may be in the same place where it started or in another part of the body. This may occur shortly after treatment or years later.
Bartlett NL, Foyil KV. Chapter 105: Hodgkin lymphoma. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Dorshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa. Elsevier: 2014.
Cheson BD, Fisher RI, Barrington SF, et al. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: The Lugano classification. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:3059-3068.
National Cancer Institute. Physician Data Query (PDQ). Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment. 2016. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/types/lymphoma/hp/adult-hodgkin-treatment-pdq on April 20, 2016.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Hodgkin Lymphoma. Version 2.2016. Accessed at www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/hodgkins.pdf on April 20, 2016.
Younes A, Carbone A, Johnson P, Dabaja B, Ansell S, Kuruvilla J. Chapter 102: Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In: DeVita VT, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015.
Last Medical Review: February 10, 2017 Last Revised: March 28, 2017